Back
 AJCC  Vol.9 No.2 , June 2020
Flooding in Informal Settlements: Potentials and Limits for Household Adaptation in Dar es Salaam City, Tanzania
Abstract: Rapid urbanization and climate change are compounding the vulnerability of the urban poor to natural hazards, particularly in the global south. Large number of the population in cities of developing countries live in informal settlements characterized with lack of infrastructure facilities and services. Majority of the informal settlements are located in risk areas such as low-lying lands and river banks whereby climatic threats associated with flooding are common. The urban informal settlements are thus disproportionately more vulnerable due to their greater exposure associated with their geophysical location, under-invested infrastructure facilities as well as poor housing quality. While it is widely acknowledged that the need to adapt to climate change related hazards such as flooding is no longer an option, literature suggests that potentials and opportunities for adaptation are unevenly distributed among global regions, communities, sectors, ecological systems as well as across different time periods. This study sought to explore the potentials and limits of households living in flood prone in an informal settlement of Magomeni Suna, Dar es Salaam Tanzania. The study employed a mixed method research design using both quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis. Quantitative data were collected through a structured questionnaire administered to 199 randomly selected respondents, while non participant observation was used to capture information related to household physical adaptation measures. Key informant interviews were used to elicit data from purposively selected representatives of government and other local institutions. Two focus group discussions supplemented the data collected through the other methods. The results show that households employ multiple options for flood adaptation ranging from structural measures aimed at preventing flood water from entering the houses, to action oriented strategies such as relocation. The results also highlight there exist potentials like strong social networks, cohesive communities, and presence of various local institutions willing to support household responses to floods. Limitations to flood adaptation include little support and ad hoc intervention by government authorities, as well as meagre household income. To enhance household adaptation to flood hazards, policy measures towards enhancing social networks and community actions for flood adaptation are necessary. There is also a need to enhance multi institutional involvement as well as promote local livelihoods so as to improve household adaptation to floods.
Cite this paper: John, R. (2020) Flooding in Informal Settlements: Potentials and Limits for Household Adaptation in Dar es Salaam City, Tanzania. American Journal of Climate Change, 9, 68-86. doi: 10.4236/ajcc.2020.92006.
References

[1]   Adger, W. N., Agrawala, S., Mirza, M. M. Q., Conde, C., O’Brien, K., Pulhin, J., Pulwarty, R., Smit, B., & Takahashi, K. (2007). Assessment of Adaptation Practices, Options, Constraints and Capacity. In M. L. Parry, O. F. Canziani, J. P. Palutikof, P. J. van der Linden, & C. E. Hanson (Eds.), Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (pp. 713-743.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[2]   Adger, W. N., Arnell, N. W., & Tompkins, E. L. (2005). Successful Adaptation to Climate Change across Scales. Global Environmental Change, 15, 77-86.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2004.12.005

[3]   Adger, W. N., Brooks, N., Bentham, G., Agnew, M., & Eriksen, S. (2004). New Indicators of Vulnerability and Adaptive Capacity. Technical Report 7, Norwich: Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research.
http://www.tyndall.ac.uk/theme3/final_reports/it1_11.Pdf

[4]   Adger, W. N., Brooks, N., Bentham, G., Agnew, M., & Eriksen, S. (2003). New Indicators of Vulnerability and Adaptive Capacity. Technical Report 7, Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, Norwich: University of East Anglia.

[5]   Adger, W. N., Dessai, S., Goulden, M., Hulme, M., Lorenzoni, I., Nelson, D. R., Naess, L. O., Wolf, J., & Wreford, A. (2009). Are There Social Limits to Adaptation to Climate Change? Climatic Change, 93, 335-354.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-008-9520-z

[6]   Agrawal, A., McSweeney, C., & Perrin, N. (2008). The Role of Local Institutions in Adaptation to Climate Change. Paper Prepared for the Social Dimensions of Climate Change. Washington DC: Social Development Department, the World Bank.
https://doi.org/10.1596/28274

[7]   Biesbroek, G. R., Klostermann, J., Termeer, C., & Kabat, P. (2013). On the Nature of Barriers to Climate Change Adaptation. Regional Environmental Change, 13, 1119-1129.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10113-013-0421-y

[8]   Blaikie, P., Cannon, T., Davis, I., & Wisner, B. (1994). At Risk: Natural Hazards, People’s Vulnerability and Disasters. New York: Routledge.

[9]   Brooks, N., Adger, W. N., & Kelly, P. M. (2005). The Determinants of Vulnerability and Adaptive Capacity at the National Level and the Implications for Adaptation. Global Environmental Change, 15, 151-163.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2004.12.006

[10]   Cutter, S. L., Boruff, B. J., & Shirley, W. L. (2003). Social Vulnerability to Environmental Hazards. Social Science Quarterly, 84, 242-261.
https://doi.org/10.1111/1540-6237.8402002

[11]   Dodman, D., Kibona, E., & Kiluma, L. (2011). Tomorrow Is Too Late: Responding to Social and Climate Vulnerability in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: Case Study Prepared for Cities and Climate Change: Global Report on Human Settlements 2011.
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228798350_Tomorrow_is_too_late_responding_to_
social_and_climate_vulnerability_in_Dar_es_Salaam_Tanzania


[12]   Eriksen, S. H., & Kelly, P. M. (2007). Developing Credible Vulnerability Indicators for Climate Adaptation Policy Assessment. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 12, 495-524.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11027-006-3460-6

[13]   Georgeson, L., Maslin, M., Poessinouw, M., & Howard, S. (2016). Adaptation Responses to Climate Change Differ between Global Megacities. Nature Climate Change, 6, 584-588.
https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate2944

[14]   Handmer, J. (2003). We Are All Vulnerable. The Australian Journal of Emergency and Management, 18, 55-60.

[15]   Hinkel, J. (2011). Indicators of Vulnerability and Adaptive Capacity: Towards a Clarification of the Science. Global Environmental Change, 21, 198-208.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2010.08.002

[16]   IPCC (2007). Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (976 p.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[17]   IPCC (2012). Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation. A Special Report of Working Groups I and II of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (582 p.). Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press.

[18]   IPCC (2014). Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. New York: Cambridge University Press.

[19]   John, R. (2015). Social Vulnerability to Climate Change Induced Floods: A Case of Dar es Salaam City, Tanzania. Unpublished Thesis, Dar es Salaam: Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Ardhi University.

[20]   John, R., Jean-Baptiste, N., & Kabisch, S. (2014). Vulnerability Assessment of Urban Populations in Africa: The Case of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. In E. Edgerton, O. Romice, & K. Thwaites (Eds.), Bridging the Boundaries: Human Experience in the Natural and Built Environment and Implication for Research, Policy and Practice (pp. 233-245). Boston, MA: Hogrefe Publishing.

[21]   Kiunsi, R. (2013). The Constraints on Climate Change Adaptation in a City with a Large Development Deficit: The Case of Dar es Salaam. Environment and Urbanization, 25, 321-337.
https://doi.org/10.1177/0956247813489617

[22]   Klein, R. J. T., Midgley, G. F., Preston, B. L., Alam, M., Berkhout, F. G. H., Dow, K., & Shaw, M. R. (2014). Adaptation Opportunities, Constraints, and Limits. In C. B. Field, V. R. Barros, D. J. Dokken, K. J. Mach, M. D. Mastrandrea, T. E. Bilir, M. Chatterjee, K. L. Ebi, Y. O. Estrada, R. C. Genova, B. Girma, E. S. Kissel, A. N. Levy, S. MacCracken, P. R. Mastrandrea, & L. L. White (Eds.), Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (pp. 899-943). Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press.

[23]   Moser, S. C., & Ekstrom, J. A. (2010). A Framework to Diagnose Barriers to Climate Change Adaptation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 107, 22026-22031.
https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1007887107

[24]   Olorunfemi, F. B. (2011). Managing Flood Disasters under a Changing Climate Change: Lessons from Nigeria and South Africa. NISER Discussion Paper No. 1; a Paper Presented at NISER Research Seminar Series, NISER, Ibadan 3rd May 2011.

[25]   Parry, M. L., Canziani, O. F., Palutikof, J. P., Van der Linden, P. J., & Hanson, C. E. (2007). Climate Change 2007 (AR4): Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (p. 976). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[26]   Skoufias, E., Rabassa, M., & Olivieri, S. (2011). The Poverty Impacts of Climate Change: A Review of the Evidence. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 5622, Washington DC: World Bank.
https://doi.org/10.1596/1813-9450-5622
http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/712691468042044435/The-poverty-impacts-of-climate-change-a-review-of-the-evidence

[27]   Smit, B., & Pilifosova, O. (2003). From Adaptation to Adaptive Capacity and Vulnerability Reduction. In J. B. Smith, R. J. T. Klein, & S. Huq (Eds.), Climate Change, Adaptive Capacity and Development (pp. 1-28). London: Imperial College Press.
https://doi.org/10.1142/9781860945816_0002

[28]   Smit, B., & Skinner, M. (2002). Adaptation Options in Agriculture to Climate Change: A Typology. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 7, 85-114.
https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1015862228270

[29]   Smit, B., Burton, I., Klein, R., & Wandel, J. (2000). An Anatomy of Adaptation to Climate Change and Variability. Climatic Change, 45, 223-251.
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-3010-5_12

[30]   Tol, R. S. J., & Yohe, G. W. (2007). The Weakest Link Hypothesis for Adaptive Capacity: An Empirical Test. Global Environmental Change, 17, 218-227.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2006.08.001

[31]   UN-DESA (United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division) (2019). World Urbanization Prospects: The 2018 Revision (ST/ESA/SER.A/420). New York: United Nations.

[32]   UN-HABITAT (2007). Global Report on Human Settlements, Enhancing Urban Safety and Security. United Nations Human Settlement Programme, London: Earthscan.
http://www.preventionweb.net/files/2585_2432alt1.pdf

[33]   UN-HABITAT (2008). The State of African Cities 2008, a Framework for Assessing Urban Challenges in Africa. UN-HABITAT (United Nations Human Settlement Programme), Nairobi.

[34]   UN-HABITAT (2010). The State of African Cities: Governance, Inequality and Urban Land Markets. Nairobi.

[35]   UN-HABITAT (2016). World Cities Report 2016. Urbanization and Development. Emerging Futures. Key Findings and Messages.
https://unhabitat.org/sites/default/files/download-manager-files/WCR-2016-WEB.pdf

[36]   URT (2007). United Republic of Tanzania, National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA).
https://assembly.thegef.org/sites/default/files/project_documents/tza01.pdf

[37]   URT (2013). 2012 Population and Housing Census: Population Distribution by Administrative Areas. Dar es Salaam: National Bureau of Statistics.

[38]   Wamsler, C. (2007). Bridging the Gaps: Stakeholder-Based Strategies for Risk Reduction and Financing for the Urban Poor. Environment and Urbanization, 19, 115-142.
https://doi.org/10.1177/0956247807077029

[39]   Weichselgartner, J., & Breviere, E. (2011). The 2002 Flood Disaster in the Elbe Region, Germany: A Lack of Context-Sensitive Knowledge. In R. A. Dowty, & B. L. Allen (Eds.), Dynamics of Disaster: Lessons on Risk, Response, and Recovery (pp. 141-158). London: Earthscan.

 
 
Top