Back
 JWARP  Vol.12 No.4 , April 2020
Potential Areas for Managed Aquifer Recharge in the Eastern Lower Jordan Valley Area
Abstract: The article deals with the feasibility of using the recent geological formations in the eastern Jordan Valley for water storage through artificial recharge due to water scarcity and water needs in this area. Water storage in surface reservoirs in arid and semi-arid areas is afflicted with a variety of issues such as high evaporation, eutrophication processes and exposure to contamination and accidents. Dams to capture all rare-event floods are, generally, big and expensive structures. Artificially recharging aquifers and storing the water in the underground offer a competing alternative. In this study, hydrogeological, geological, geophysical and hydrochemical investigations were carried out to study the potentials of the eastern side of the Lower Jordan Valley for artificial recharge. The results reveal that relatively extended areas on the eastern side of the Lower Jordan Valley have the potential to accommodate large amounts of recharge water and that the impacts of artificially storing the water in aquifers are to be judged very positive compared to surface storage, especially when the amounts of available recharge water can quantitatively be accommodated in recharge facilities. In addition, the study shows, the advantages of underground water storage compared to surface storage in dams. The potential storage capacities in the different parts of the Lower Jordan Valley are quantified based on rechargeable aquifer volumes and porosities. The potential uses of the recharged water are also elaborated on depending on recharge and aquifer water qualities.
Cite this paper: Salameh, E. and Abdallat, G. (2020) Potential Areas for Managed Aquifer Recharge in the Eastern Lower Jordan Valley Area. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 12, 330-357. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2020.124020.
References

[1]   Salameh, E. (2004) Ancient Water Supply Systems and Their Relevance to Today’s Society in Jordan. In: Bienert, H.-D. and Haeser, J., Eds., Men of Dikes and Canals. The Archaeology of Water in the Middle East, Marie Leidorf, Rahden/Westf, Germany, 85-90.

[2]   Asano, T. (2016) Artificial Recharge of Groundwater. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

[3]   Heviánková, S., Marschalko, M., Chromíková, J., Kyncl, M. and Korabík, M. (2016) Artificial Ground Water Recharge with Surface Water. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 44, Article ID: 022036.
https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/44/2/022036

[4]   Huber, A., et al. (2014) Pre-Requirements and Design Criteria for New MAR System in Compliance with EU WFD and GWD (Including Pre-Treatment) Part of D 12.2. DEMEAU.

[5]   Bouwer, H. (2002) Artificial Recharge of Groundwater: Hydrogeology and Engineering. Hydrogeology Journal, 10, 121-142.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10040-001-0182-4

[6]   Saraf, A.K. and Choudhury, P.R. (1998) Integrated Remote Sensing and GIS for Groundwater Exploration and Identification of Artificial Recharge Sites. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 19, 1825-1841.
https://doi.org/10.1080/014311698215018

[7]   Peters, J.H. and Jensen, K.H. (1998) Artificial Recharge of Groundwater. In: The Third International Symposium on Artificial Recharge of Groundwater, CRC Press/Balkema, Boca Raton, 1-474.

[8]   Chowdhury, A., Jha, M.K. and Chowdary, V.M. (2010) Delineation of Groundwater Recharge Zones and Identification of Artificial Recharge Sites in West Medinipur District, West Bengal, Using RS, GIS and MCDM Techniques. Environmental Earth Sciences, 59, 1209.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-009-0110-9

[9]   Al-Amoush, H.R. (2006) Hydro-Geophysical Investigations for the Purposes of Groundwater Artificial Recharge in the Jordan Valley Area. Unpublished PhD Dissertation, University of Jordan, Amman.

[10]   Wolf, L., Werz, H., Hoetzl, H. and Ghanem, M. (2007) Exploring the Potential of Managed Aquifer Recharge to Mitigate Water Scarcity in the Lower Jordan River Basin within an IWRM Approach. Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Managed Artificial Recharge of Groundwater, Phoenix, Vol. 28, 30-46.

[11]   Salameh, E., Abdallat, G. and van der Valk, M. (2019) Planning Considerations of Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) Projects in Jordan. Water, 11, 182.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020182

[12]   Department of Meteorology (DOM), Jordan, Open Files.

[13]   Bender, F. (1968) Geologie von jordanien. Gebrüder Burntrager, Berlin.

[14]   Horowitz, A. (1979) The Quaternary of Israel. Academic Press, London.

[15]   NRA, Natural Resources Authority (NAR), Mapping Program Sheet, Open Files.

[16]   MacDonald (1965) Groundwater Investigation in Dhuleil Area/Jordan UNDP Project.

[17]   Bandel, K. and Salameh, E. (2013) Geologic Development of Jordan. Evolution of Its Rocks and Life. University of Jordan Press, Amman.

[18]   National Water Master Plan of Jordan (NWMP) (1977).

[19]   Water Authority of Jordan (WAJ), Open Files.

[20]   Hirzalla, B. (1973) Groundwater Resources in the Jordan Valley. Natural Resources Authority, Amman.

[21]   Salameh, E. (1991) Precipitation Water Quality in Jordan. WRSC-Bull. No. 66.

[22]   Alkhoury, W.E. and Salameh, E. (2005) The Water Constituents of King Abdullah Canal and Their Role in the Eutrophication Processes. University of Jordan, Amman.

[23]   Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften (BGR), Bender, F., Flate, H. and Futian, A. (1965) Results of the Hydrogeological and Geoelectrical Survey in the Southern Jordan Valley, Hannover and Amman.

[24]   El-Hassan, O. (1999) Geology and Hydrogeology of the Area between Deir Alla and Suleikhat. A Geologic-Geophysical Study for the Potential of Groundwater Artificial Recharge. Unpub. Doctoral Dissertation, M.Sc. Thesis, University of Jordan, Amman.

[25]   Sarahney, H. (1999) Residues of Fertilizers and Pesticides in the Water Sources in the Area between Wadi Rayyan and Wadi Yarmouk. Unpubl. Doctoral Dissertation, M.Sc. Thesis, University of Jordan, Amman.

[26]   Fehdi, C. (2000) Geology and Hydrogeology of the Area between Suleikhat and Waqqas. A Geologic-Geophysical Study for the Potential of Groundwater Artificial Recharge. Unpubl. Doctoral Dissertation, M.Sc. Thesis, University of Jordan, Amman.

[27]   Salameh, E. (2001) The Potential of Groundwater Artificial Recharge in the Jordan Valley Area/Jordan: Selected Contributions to Applied Geology in the Jordan Rift Valley. Freib Forsch. Hefte C, 494, 63-81.

[28]   Al-Amoush, H., Salameh, E. and Al-Raggad, M. (2012) Hydro-Geoelectrical Investigation for the Potential of Underground Water Storage along the Lower Reaches of King Abdullah Canal-Deir Alla Area/Jordan. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 4, 545.
https://doi.org/10.4236/jwarp.2012.47064

 
 
Top