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 VP  Vol.6 No.1 , March 2020
Perception of the Community towards Issues on Extrajudicial Killings in the Philippines
Abstract: In the Philippines, Extrajudicial Killings is the tool mainly used against narcoproducents, narcotraficars and narcodealers. This study described the impacts of the viewed video clips in determining the attitudes and behavior of the respondents towards extrajudicial killings; and the response (positive/negative) and action of the respondents upon viewing the video clips. Descriptive method was used in this research and Likert-type questionnaire was utilized and distributed to 165 respondents. The researcher concluded that the respondents obtained knowledge and better understanding about extrajudicial killing documentaries. This was founded results wherein the respondent’s answers to the survey questionnaires bent towards “agree” and “neutral”. The results also imply that respondents have a positive attitude towards the documentaries about extrajudicial killings. Respondent’s increased knowledge leads to favorable attitude. The respondents became more concerned with the children who live in the next generation to have a peaceful, safety and drug-free country as they sympathize with the difficulties of extrajudicial killings featured in the documentaries. Over-all, it is concluded that most of the respondents thought of Extrajudicial killing as a positive tool against narcoproducents, narcotraficars and narcodealers.

1. Introduction

In the Philippines, Extrajudicial Killings is the tool mainly used against narcoproducents, narcotraficars and narcodealers. Since the inauguration of President Rodrigo Duterte on June 30, 2016, and his call for a “war on drugs”, Philippine National Police Officers and unidentified “vigilantes” have killed over 7,000 people. This war on drugs somehow paved a way for the police officers and unidentified “vigilantes” a “License to kill”. Extrajudicial killings are defined by law as killings owing to the victims’ political affiliation; method of attack; and involvement or consent of state agents in the killing commission (Supreme Court Administrative Order 25, 2007).

Extra-judicial killing is a violation of the rights of the people of life and the infringement of the international code of human rights by the Government (Ojo, 2010). When the state itself is engaged in extrajudicial killings, it is quite clear that this act infringes explicitly the obligation of the state to protect the right to life of its citizens (Lanfer, 2010).

Many local and international human rights organizations have expressed serious concerns and criticisms about a range of human rights issues including widespread extrajudicial killings (Parreno, 2011). Nevertheless, there is hope that zeal and unity will restore power, and that the effort of civil society to ensure the resolution of human rights violations, including extrajudicial killings, will bear fruit (Purba, 2009).

People in power have created an illusion in various countries around the world that killing “terrorists” without taking them to trial will help curb “terrorism”, but in reality these extrajudicial killings can neither bring peace nor stop “terrorism” (Aziz, 2015). The ludicrous shoot-to-kill strategy has made the police emboldened to indulge in, or to tolerate, extrajudicial killing of civilians on the flimsiest excuse (Igbo, 2017).

2. Conceptual Framework

Police’s public perception is tainted by the abuse of powers to generate misleading police reputation, and police-public relations were reflected in police corruption and violence that was their daily trademark (Olusegun, 2014).

In widening the horizons of appropriate and credible evidence of violations of human rights to include aspects of popular culture, human rights experts have the ability to spot tell-tale signs of a wrong system (Sipalla & Lewela, 2012).

Consequently, efforts to address violent extremism adequately must take into account the psycho-social needs of disadvantaged communities and individuals, and be multi-sectoral in order to accommodate all varied pathways to violent extremist participation (Villa-Vicencio et al., 2016).

3. Objective of the Study

The study described the impacts of the viewed video clips in determining the attitudes and behavior of the respondents towards extrajudicial killings; and the response (positive/negative) and action of the respondents upon viewing the video clips.

4. Methodology

The descriptive method of research was used in this study because it involves description, recording, analysis and interpretation of condition that really exists. It is appropriate to use descriptive method in gathering information about the present existing condition (Creswell, 2014). A total of 165 respondents from different barangays of Nueva Ecija were surveyed. The researcher used Likert-scale type questionnaire (Vagias, 2006) and analyzed it through statistical data treatment such as standard deviation and mean.

5. Results

Table 1 presents the perception of respondents towards the negative issues on extrajudicial killing. Based from the results, the statement, “I learned that Extrajudicial Killings is a crime”, got the highest weighted mean of 4.08 with the verbal interpretation, “Agree”. While, the statement, “I realized that Extrajudicial Killings victim are innocent” got the lowest weighted mean of 2.66 with the verbal interpretation, “Neutral”.

Table 2 presents the perception of respondents towards the positive issues on extrajudicial killing. Based from the results, the statement, “I learned how to accept Extrajudicial Killings because it is the only way to stop the problems on drugs” got the highest weighted mean of 4.01 with the verbal interpretation, “Agree”. While, the statement, “I understand that vigilante group helps the PNP to solve the problems on war on drugs” got the lowest weighted mean of 3.48 with the verbal interpretation, “Neutral”.

Table 3 presents the number of those who have a positive and negative perceptions towards community of extrajudicial killing. Based from the results, most of the respondents thought of Extrajudicial Killings as positive garnering a percentage of 53.94% with 89 number of votes. While, almost half of the respondents thought Extrajudicial Killings as negative garnering a percentage of 46.06% with 76 number of votes.

Table 1. Negative issues on extrajudicial killings.

Table 2. Positive issues on extrajudicial killings.

Table 3. Perception of community towards extrajudicial killings.

6. Conclusion and Discussion

The researcher concluded that the respondents obtained knowledge and better understanding about extrajudicial killing documentaries. This was founded results wherein the respondent’s answers to the survey questionnaires bent towards “agree” and “neutral”.

The results also imply that respondents have a positive attitude towards the documentaries about extrajudicial killings. Respondent’s increased knowledge leads to favorable attitude. The respondents became more concerned with the children who live in the next generation to have a peaceful, safety and drug-free country as they sympathize with the difficulties of extrajudicial killings featured in the documentaries. It suggests that documentary videos also inspire viewer in obtaining the positive view in Extra Judicial Killings in the midst of difficult situation.

After watching the Documentaries about Extra Judicial Killings video clips, respondents are urged to make certain actions. Respondent’s increased knowledge leads to positive behavior. Most of the respondents would be willing to share others the knowledge they have obtained from the short videos. Respondents will most likely make further research about Extra Judicial Killings and are greatly encouraged to tell to the others the good sight and support the Extra Judicial Killings in the country.

Thus, the researcher also concluded that most of the respondents thought Extra Judicial Killings as positive tool to prevent and stop mainly the narcoproducents, narcotraficars and narcodealers.

The acquirement of knowledge about Extra Judicial Killings affected the outcome of attitude and behavior of the respondents. This simply implies that documentary videos are essential instrument in obtaining knowledge and it serves as a tool to convey the issues in the society that needs to be given attention. It leads people to a wider scope of knowledge and drives them to make actions accordingly.

Cite this paper: Austria-Cruz, M. (2020) Perception of the Community towards Issues on Extrajudicial Killings in the Philippines. Voice of the Publisher, 6, 1-5. doi: 10.4236/vp.2020.61001.
References

[1]   Aziz, M. B. (2015). Extrajudicial Killing: An Overview of Bangladesh. BEST: International Journal of Humanities, Arts, Medicine and Sciences, 3, 131-142.

[2]   Creswell, J. W. (2014). A Concise Introduction to Mixed Methods Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.

[3]   Igbo, E. U. (2017). The Use and Abuse of Police Powers and Extrajudicial Killings in Nigeria. African Journal of Criminology & Justice Studies, 10, 83-99.

[4]   Lanfer, A. (2010). Extrajudicial Killings: A Human Rights Crisis. Observer: A Journal on Threatened Human Rights Defenders in the Philippines, 2, 4-6.

[5]   Ojo, E. (2010). Boko Haram: Nigeria’s Extra-Judicial State. Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa, 12, 45-62.

[6]   Olusegun, A. (2014). Public Perception of the Police and Crime Prevention in Nigeria. International Journal of Criminology and Sociological Theory, 7, 1-12.

[7]   Parreno, A. A. (2011). Report on the Philippine Extrajudicial Killings, 2001-August 2010. USAID.

[8]   Purba, O. (2009). Challenges in Solving Extrajudicial Killing Cases in Conflict Areas. In M. A. Makaarim, W. A. Prajuli, & F. B. Timur (Eds.), Human Rights and the Indonesian Security Sector: 2009 Almanac (p. 127). Jakarta: IDSPS.

[9]   Sipalla, H., & Lewela, K. (2012). Policed Perceptions, Masked Realities: Human Rights and Law Enforcement in Kenya. In F. Viljoen (Ed.), Beyond the Law: Multi-Disciplinary Perspectives on Human Rights (pp. 209-234). Pretoria: Pretoria University Law Press.

[10]   Supreme Court Administrative Order 25 (2007). Determining whether a Crime is a Political Killing.
http://oca.judiciary.gov.ph/

[11]   Vagias, W. M. (2006). Likert-Type Scale Response Anchors. Clemson International Institute for Tourism & Research Development, Department of Parks, Recreation and Tourism Management, Clemson University.

[12]   Villa-Vicencio, C., Buchanan-Clarke, S., & Humphrey, A. (2016). Community Perceptions of Violent Extremism in Kenya.

 
 
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