Back
 AJPS  Vol.11 No.3 , March 2020
Influence of Adjuvants on the Efficacy of Tolpyralate plus Atrazine for the Control of Annual Grass and Broadleaf Weeds in Corn with and without Roundup WeatherMAX®
Abstract: Tolpyralate is a new HPPD-inhibiting herbicide that is efficacious on annual grass and broadleaf weed species in corn. For maximum herbicide performance of tolpyralate, it is recommended that atrazine is tank mixed with tolpyralate along with the adjuvants methylated seed oil concentrate (MSO) plus urea ammonia nitrate (UAN). A common use pattern of tolpyralate plus atrazine will be in a tank mix with Roundup WeatherMAX® due to the high proportion of corn acres that are seeded to Roundup Ready® hybrids in Eastern Canada. There is no information in the peer-reviewed literature if the adjuvant system in Roundup WeatherMAX® is adequate for optimal herbicide performance of tolpyralate plus atrazine, or if MSO and UAN are still required. Six field trials were conducted over two years near Ridgetown and Exeter, ON, Canada to determine if adjuvants are still required when tolpyralate plus atrazine is tank mixed with Roundup WeatherMAX® in corn. Tolpyralate plus atrazine plus MSO and Roundup WeatherMAX® plus tolpyralate plus atrazine provided excellent control of velvetleaf, pigweed spp, common ragweed, lambsquarters, ladysthumb, wild mustard, flower-of-an-hour, barnyardgrass and green foxtail in this study. Results of this study show that in the absence of Roundup WeatherMAX®, weed control with tolpyralate plus atrazine was improved substantially with the addition of MSO; however, there was little to no increase in weed control with the addition of UAN. When tolpyralate plus atrazine was co-applied with Roundup WeatherMAX®, there was no improvement in weed control with the addition of MSO and/or UAN.
Cite this paper: Langdon, N. , Soltani, N. , Raedar, A. , Robinson, D. , Hooker, D. and Sikkema, P. (2020) Influence of Adjuvants on the Efficacy of Tolpyralate plus Atrazine for the Control of Annual Grass and Broadleaf Weeds in Corn with and without Roundup WeatherMAX®. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 11, 465-495. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2020.113034.
References

[1]   Page, E.R., Cerrudo, D., Westra, P., Loux, M., Smith, K., Foresman, C., Wright, H. and Swanton, C.J. (2012) Why Early Season Weed Control Is Important in Maize. Weed Science, 60, 423-430.
https://doi.org/10.1614/WS-D-11-00183.1

[2]   Soltani, N., Dille, J.A., Burke, I.C., Everman, W.J., VanGessel, M.J., Davis, V.M. and Sikkema, P.H. (2017) Perspectives on Potential Soybean Yield Losses from Weeds in North America. Weed Technology, 30, 148-154.
https://doi.org/10.1017/wet.2016.2

[3]   Swanton, C.J. and Weise, S.F. (1991) Integrated Weed Management: The Rationale and Approach. Weed Technology, 5, 657-663.
https://doi.org/10.1017/S0890037X00027512

[4]   Hall, M.R., Swanton, C.J. and Anderson, G.W. (1992) The Critical Period of Weed Control in Grain Corn (Zea mays). Weed Science, 40, 441-447.
https://doi.org/10.1017/S0043174500051882

[5]   Ahrens, H., Lange, G., Müller, T., Rosinger, C., Willms, L. and van Almsick, A. (2013) 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate Dioxygenase Inhibitors in Combination with Safeners: Solutions for Modern and Sustainable Agriculture. Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 52, 9388-9398.
https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.201302365

[6]   Hawkes, T.R. (2012) Hydroxyphenylpyruvate Dioxygenase (HPPD): The Herbicide Target. In: Kramer, W., Schirmer, U., Jeschke, P. and Witschel, M., Eds., Modern Crop Protection Compounds, 2nd Edition, Volume 1, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co., Weinheim, Germany.

[7]   Anonymous (2019) SHIELDEX® 400SC Herbicide Label. ISK Biosciences Corporation, Concord, OH.

[8]   Metzger, B.A., Soltani, N., Raeder, A.J., Hooker, D.C., Robinson, D.E. and Sikkema, P.H. (2018) Tolpyralate Efficacy: Part 1. Biologically Effective Dose of Tolpyralate for Control of Annual Grass and Broadleaf Weeds in Corn. Weed Technology, 32, 698-706.
https://doi.org/10.1017/wet.2018.82

[9]   Metzger, B.A., Soltani, N., Raeder, A.J., Hooker, D.C., Robinson, D.E. and Sikkema, P.H. (2019) Effect of Hybrid Varieties, Application Timing, and Herbicide Rate on Field Corn Tolerance to Tolpyralate plus Atrazine. Weed Science, 67, 475-484.
https://doi.org/10.1017/wsc.2019.34

[10]   Metzger, B.A., Soltani, N., Raeder, A.J., Hooker, D.C., Robinson, D.E. and Sikkema, P.H. (2019) Influence of Application Timing and Herbicide Rate on the Efficacy of Tolpyralate plus Atrazine. Weed Technology, 33, 448-458.
https://doi.org/10.1017/wet.2019.25

[11]   Anonymous (2019) Roundup WeatherMAX® with Transorb 2 Technology. Monsanto Canada ULC, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

[12]   Weed Science Society of America [WSSA] (2019) WSSA Glossary.
http://wssa.net/wssa/wssa-glossary/

[13]   McMullan, P.M. (2000) Utility Adjuvants. Weed Technology, 14, 792-797.
https://doi.org/10.1614/0890-037X(2000)014[0792:UA]2.0.CO;2

[14]   Xu, L.Y., Zhu, H.P., Ozkan, H.E., Bagley, W.E., Derksen, R.C. and Krause, C.R. (2010) Adjuvant Effects on Evaporation Time and Wetted Area of Droplets on Waxy Leaves. American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, 51, 13-20.
https://doi.org/10.13031/2013.29495

[15]   Zhang, J., Jaeck, O., Menegat, A., Zhang, Z., Gerhards, R. and Ni, H. (2013) The Mechanism of Methylated Seed Oil on Enhancing Biological Efficacy of Topramezone on Weeds. PLoS ONE, 8, e74280.
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0074280

[16]   Gronwald, J.W., Jourdan, S.W., Wyse, D.L., Somers, D.A. and Magnusson, M.U. (1993) Effect of Ammonium Sulfate on Absorption of Imazethapyr by Quackgrass (Elytrigia repens) and Maize (Zea mays) Cell Suspension Cultures. Weed Science, 41, 325-334.
https://doi.org/10.1017/S0043174500052012

[17]   Woznica, Z., Nalewaja, J.D., Messersmith, C.G. and Milkowski, P. (2003) Quinclorac Efficacy as Affected by Adjuvants and Spray Carrier Water. Weed Technology, 17, 582-588.
https://doi.org/10.1614/0890-037X(2003)017[0582:QEAABA]2.0.CO;2

[18]   Idziak, R., Skrzypczak, W., Waligora, H. and Woznica, Z. (2013) The Effect of Mesotrione Applied with Adjuvants on Weed Control Efficacy and Forage Sorghum Tolerance. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 37, 265-270.

[19]   Bayer (2019) Roundup.
https://www.roundup.ca/en/the-roundup-advantage

[20]   Soltani, N., Shropshire, C. and Sikkema, P.H. (2018) Tank Mixture of Roundup WeatherMAX® with 2, 4-D Accentuates 2, 4-D Injury in Roundup WeatherMAX®-Resistant Corn. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 98, 889-896.
https://doi.org/10.1139/cjps-2017-0241

[21]   Deen, W., Hamill, A., Shropshire, C., Soltani, N. and Sikkema, P.H. (2006) Control of Volunteer Glyphosate-Resistant Corn (Zea mays) in Glyphosate-Resistant Soybean (Glycine max). Weed Technology, 20, 261-266.
https://doi.org/10.1614/WT-02-128.1

[22]   Eubank, T.W., Nandula, V.K., Reddy, K.N., Poston, D.H. and Shaw, D.R. (2013) Saflufenacil Efficacy on Horseweed and Its Interaction with Glyphosate. Weed Biology and Management, 13, 135-143.
https://doi.org/10.1111/wbm.12022

[23]   Starke, R.J. and Oliver, L.R. (1998) Interaction of Glyphosate with Chlorimuron, Fomesafen, Imazethapyr, and Sulfentrazone. Weed Science, 46, 652-660.
https://doi.org/10.1017/S0043174500089670

[24]   Bilyea, D. (2016) Ontario Weed Survey. University of Guelph Ridgetown Campus, Ridgetown.

[25]   Hatterman-Valenti, H., Pitty, A. and Owen, M. (2011) Environmental Effects on Velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti) Epicuticular Wax Deposition and Herbicide Absorption. Weed Science, 59, 14-21.
https://doi.org/10.1614/WS-D-10-00061.1

[26]   Hinz, J.R. and Owen, M.D.K. (1994) Effect of Drought Stress on Velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti) and Bentazon Efficacy. Weed Science, 42, 76-81.
https://doi.org/10.1017/S0043174500084198

[27]   Metzger, B.A., Soltani, N., Raeder, A.J., Hooker, D.C., Robinson, D.E. and Sikkema, P.H. (2018) Tolpyralate Efficacy: Part 2. Comparison of Three Group 27 Herbicides Applied POST for Annual Grass and Broadleaf Weed Control in Corn. Weed Technology, 32, 707-713.
https://doi.org/10.1017/wet.2018.81

[28]   Bunting, J.A., Spraque, C.L. and Reichers, D.E. (2004) Absorption and Activity of Foramsulfuron in Giant Foxtail (Setaria faberi) and Woolly Cupgrass (Eriochloa villosa) with Various Adjuvants. Weed Science, 52, 513-517.
https://doi.org/10.1614/WS-03-135R

[29]   Dayan, F.E., Green, H.M., Weete, J.D. and Hancock, H.G. (1996) Postemergence Activity of Sulfentrazone: Effects of Surfactants and Leaf Surfaces. Weed Science, 44, 797-803.
https://doi.org/10.1017/S0043174500094741

[30]   Young, B.G. and Hart, S.E. (1998) Optimizing Foliar Activity of Isoxaflutole on Giant Foxtail (Setaria faberi) with Various Adjuvants. Weed Science, 46, 397-402.
https://doi.org/10.1017/S0043174500090792

[31]   Hutchinson, P.J., Eberlein, C.V. and Tonks, D.J. (2004) Broadleaf Weed Control and Potato Crop Safety with Postemergence Rimsulfuron, Metribuzin, and Adjuvant Combinations. Weed Technology, 18, 750-756.
https://doi.org/10.1614/WT-03-172R1

 
 
Top