AJPS  Vol.11 No.3 , March 2020
Production and Nutritional Quality of Tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum var. Cerasiforme) Are Improved in the Presence of Biochar and Inoculation with Arbuscular Mycorrhizae
Abstract: Tomato is a fruit of great nutritional interest in the basic human diet. The increasing use of agrochemicals to maintain production requires new alternatives to reduce environmental impact. Arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) are beneficial microorganisms that favor the growth of plants improving their nutrition and development, protecting the plant from biotic and abiotic stresses and favoring the production of bioactive compounds that increase their nutritional value. The use of biochar as soil conditioner is also considered an environmentally friendly resource. A greenhouse experiment was carried out to observe the effect of the use of biochar and AM inoculation on the quality of fruits, yield and polyphenols production of Cherry tomato, Solanum lycopersicum var. Cerasiforme. A mixture of rice husk biochar with sterile sand and two inoculums of Glomeromycota native fungi: from a wetland (GWI) and a fallow field (GFI) were used. Control treatments consisted of inoculation with both GWI and GFI in sterile sand. All treatments were irrigated with 50% La Molina? hydroponic solution. After 12 weeks plants were harvested to quantify weight, number and diameters of the fruits, and yield, total polyphenols in the fruit pulp were quantified. In the presence of biochar and the two inoculums, GFI and GWI, fruit production was favored throughout the experiment. The height of the plants was significantly greater in the presence of biochar. Plants grown in biochar and inoculated with GFI had a yield of 8.2 MT/Ha, increasing in 50% this value respect to control with biochar (5.33 MT/Ha). This treatment doubled the number of fruits (59.5) with respect to the control (32.5). Root colonization by GFI was not affected by the presence of biochar. It is concluded that the combined use of rice husk biochar and Glomeromycota fungal inoculation is recommended for increasing of Cherry tomato yield and improving fruit quality through the production of bioactive compounds.
Cite this paper: Castañeda, W. , Toro, M. , Solorzano, A. and Zúñiga-Dávila, D. (2020) Production and Nutritional Quality of Tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum var. Cerasiforme) Are Improved in the Presence of Biochar and Inoculation with Arbuscular Mycorrhizae. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 11, 426-436. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2020.113031.

[1]   INEI (2018) Peru panorama económico departamental. Informe Técnico No. 5.

[2]   Vergani-Boza, I. and Zúniga-Davila, D. (2018) Effect of Inoculation and Pelleting on the Germination and Growth of Maca (Lepidium meyenii W.) in Vitro and Greenhouse. Revista Peruana de Biología, 25, 329-334.

[3]   Barea, J.M. (2015) Future Challenges and Perspectives for Applying Microbial Biotechnology in Sustainable Agriculture Based on a Better Understanding of Plant-Microbiome Interactions. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 15, 261-282.

[4]   Bona, E., Cantamessa, S., Massa, N., Manasser, P., Marsano, F., Copetta, A., Lingua, G., D’Agostino, G., Gamalero, E. and Berta, G. (2016) Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Plant Growth-Promoting Pseudomonads Improve Yield, Quality and Nutritional Value of Tomato: A Field Study. Mycorrhiza, 27, 1-11.

[5]   Avio, L., Turrini, A., Giovannetti, M. and Sbrana, C. (2018) Designing the Ideotype Mycorrhizal Symbionts for the Production of Healthy Food. Frontiers in Plant Science, 9, 1089.

[6]   Lehmann, J., Rillig, M., Thies, J., Masiello, C.A., Hockaday, W.C. and Crowley, D. (2011) Biochar Effects on Soil Biota: A Review. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 43, 1812-1820.

[7]   Kloss, S. (2013) Biochar Application to Temperate Soils: Effects on Soil Fertility and Crop Growth under Greenhouse Conditions. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 177, 3-15.

[8]   Biederman, L.A. and Harpole, W.S. (2012) Biochar and Its Effects on Plant Productivity and Nutrient Cycling: A Meta-Analysis. GCB Bioenergy, 5, 202-214.

[9]   Gunarathne, V., Mayakaduwa, S. and Vithanage, M. (2017) Biochar’s Influence as a Soil Amendment for Essential Plant Nutrient Uptake. In: Naeem, et al., Eds., Essential Plant Nutrients, Springer International Publishing, New York, 47-67.

[10]   Rawat, J., Saxena, J. and Sanwal, P. (2019) Biochar: A Sustainable Approach for Improving Plant Growth and Soil Properties.

[11]   Egamberdieva, D., Hua, M., Reckling, M., Wirth, S. and Bellingrath Kimura, S.D. (2018) Potential Effects of Biochar-Based Microbial Inoculants in Agriculture. Environmental Sustainability, 1, 19-24.

[12]   Sieverding, E. (1991) Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Management in Tropical Agrosystems. Eschborn, GTZ.

[13]   Hepper, C. and O’Shea, J. (1984) Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Infection in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) in Relation to Calcium Supply. Plant and Soil, 82, 61-68.

[14]   Marques, G., Tampakaki, A. and Alsina I. (2014) Working with Microbial Symbioses of Legumes: Handbook of Protocols. Eurolegume. FP7 Research Project No. 613781.

[15]   Giovannetti, M. and Mosse, B. (1980) An Evaluation of Techniques for Measuring Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Infection in Roots. New Phytologist, 84, 489-500.

[16]   Phillips, J. and Hayman, D. (1970) Improved Procedures for Clearing Roots and Staining Parasitic and Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi for Rapid Assessment of Infection. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 55, 158-161.

[17]   Singleton, V.L. and Rossi Jr., J. (1965) Colorimetry of Total Phenolics with Phosphomolybdic-Phosphotungstic Acid Reagents. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 16, 144-158.

[18]   Siddiqui, A.R., Nazeer, S., Awais Piracha, M., Masood Saleem, M., Siddiqi, I., Muhammad Shahzad, S. and Sarwar, G. (2016) The Production of Biochar and Its Possible Effects on Soil Properties and Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria. Journal of Applied Agriculture and Biotechnology, 1, 27-40.

[19]   Blackwell, P., Krull, E., Butler, G., Herbert, A. and Solaiman, Z. (2010) Effect of Banded Biochar on Dryland Wheat Production and Fertiliser Use in South-Western Australia: An Agronomic and Economic Perspective. Australian Journal of Soil Research, 48, 531-545.

[20]   Warnock, D.D., Lehmann, J., Kuyper, T.W. and Rillig, M.C. (2007) Mycorrhizal Responses to Biochar in Soil-Concepts and Mechanisms. Plant & Soil, 300, 9-20.

[21]   Gosling, P., Mead, A., Proctor, M., Hammond, J. and Bending, G. (2013) Contrasting Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Communities Colonizing Different Host Plants Show a Similar Response to a Soil Phosphorus Concentration Gradient. New Phytologist, 198, 546-556.

[22]   Ibrahim, M. (2018) Response of Seeds Quality of Sunflower to Inoculation with Single and Mixed Species of Indigenous Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi. The Open Agriculture Journal, 12, 123-129.

[23]   Jansa, J., Smith, A. and Smith, S. (2007) Are There Benefits of Simultaneous Root Colonization by Different Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi? New Phytologist, 177, 779-789.

[24]   Lone, R., Shuab, R., Sharma, V., Kumar, V., Mir, R. and Koul, K. (2015) Effect of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi on Growth and Development of Potato (Solanum tuberosum). Plant Journal of Crop Science, 7, 233-243.

[25]   Zare-Maivan, H., Khanpour-Ardestani, N. and Ghanati, F. (2017) Influence of Mycorrhizal Fungi on Growth, Chlorophyll Content, and Potassium and Magnesium Uptake in Maize. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 40, 2026-2032.

[26]   Zhang, H., Xu, N., Li, X., Long, J., Sui, X., Wu, Y., Li, J., Wang, J., Zhong, H. and Sun, G.Y. (2018) Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (Glomus mosseae) Improves Growth, Photosynthesis and Protects Photosystem II in Leaves of Lolium perenne L. in Cadmium Contaminated Soil. Frontiers Plant Science, 9, 1156.

[27]   Mena-Violante, H., Ocampo-Jiménez, O., Dendooven, L., Martínez-Soto, G., González-Castaneda, J., Davies Jr., F. and Olalde-Portugal, V. (2006) Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Enhance Fruit Growth and Quality of Chile Ancho (Capsicum annuum L. cv San Luis) Plants Exposed to Drought. Mycorrhiza, 16, 261-267.

[28]   Rajasekaran, S., Nagarajan, S.M., Arumugam, K., Sravanamuthu, R. and Balamurugan, S. (2006) Effect of Dual Inoculation (AM Fungi and Rhizobium) on Chlorophyll Content of Arachis hypogaea L. CV. TMV-2. Plant Archives, 6, 671-672.

[29]   Cecatto, A.P., Martínez Ruiz, F., Oliveira Calvete, E., Martínez, J. and Palencia, P. (2016) Mycorrhizal Inoculation Affects the Phytochemical Content in Strawberry Fruits. Acta Scientiarum Agronomy, 38, 227-237.

[30]   Candidoa, V., Campanelli, G., D’Addabboc, T., Castronuovoa, D., Perniolaa, M. and Camelea, I. (2015) Growth and Yield Promoting Effect of Artificial Mycorrhization on Field Tomato at Different Irrigation Regimes. Scientia Horticulturae, 187, 35-43.

[31]   Sellitto, V., Golubkina, N., Pietrantonio, L., Cozzolino, E., Cuciniello, A., Cenvinzo, V., Florin, I. and Caruso, G. (2019) Tomato Yield, Quality, Mineral Composition and Antioxidants as Affected by Beneficial Microorganisms under Soil Salinity Induced by Balanced Nutrient Solutions. Agriculture, 9, 110.

[32]   Jugran, A.K., Bahukhandi, A., Dhyani, P., Bhatt, I.D., Rawal, R.S., Nandi, S.K. and Palni, L.M.S. (2015) The Effect of Inoculation with Mycorrhiza: AM on Growth, Phenolics, Tannins, Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Activity in Valeriana jatamansi Jones. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 15, 1036-1049.

[33]   Lima dos Santos, E., Alves da Silva, F. and Barbosa da Silva, F.S. (2017) Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Increase the Phenolic Compounds Concentration in the Bark of the Stem of Libidibia ferrea in Field Conditions. The Open Microbiology Journal, 11, 283-291.

[34]   Sarker, U. and Oba, S. (2018) Drought Stress Enhances Nutritional and Bioactive Compounds, Phenolic Acids and Antioxidant Capacity of Amaranthus Leafy Vegetable. BMC Plant Biology, 18, 258.

[35]   Sharma, A., Shahzad, B., Rehman, A., Bhardwaj, R., Landi, M. and Zheng, B. (2019) Response of Phenylpropanoid Pathway and the Role of Polyphenols in Plants under Abiotic Stress. Molecules, 24, 2452.

[36]   Caretto, S., Linsalata, V., Colella, G., Mita, G. and Lattanzio, V. (2015) Carbon Fluxes between Primary Metabolism and Phenolic Pathway in Plant Tissues under Stress. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 16, 26378-26394.

[37]   Vallverdu-Queralt, A., Medina-Remon, A., Martínez-Huelamo, M., Jauregui, O., Andres-Lacueva, C. and Lamuela-Raventos, R.M. (2011) Phenolic Profile and Hydrophilic Antioxidant Capacity as Chemotaxonomic Markers of Tomato Varieties. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, 59, 3994-4001.

[38]   Martí, R., Roselló, S. and Cebolla-Cornejo, J. (2016) Tomato as a Source of Carotenoids and Polyphenols Targeted to Cancer Prevention. Cancers, 8, 58.