CellBio  Vol.9 No.1 , March 2020
De Novo Organelle Biogenesis in the Cyanobacterium TDX16 Released from the Green Alga Haematococcus pluvialis
Abstract: It is believed that eukaryotes arise from prokaryotes, which means that organelles can form de novo in prokaryotes. Such events, however, had not been observed previously. Here, we report the biogenesis of organelles in the endosymbiotic cyanobacterium TDX16 (prokaryote) that was released from its senescent/necrotic host cell of green alga Haematococcus pluvialis (eukaryote). Microscopic observations showed that organelle biogenesis in TDX16 initiated with cytoplasm compartmentalization, followed by de-compartmentalization, DNA allocation, and re-compartmentalization, as such two composite organelles-the primitive chloroplast and primitive nucleus sequestering minor and major fractions of cellular DNA respectively were formed. Thereafter, the eukaryotic cytoplasmic matrix was built up from the matrix extruded from the primitive nucleus; mitochondria were assembled in and segregated from the primitive chloroplast, whereby the primitive nucleus and primitive chloroplast matured into the nucleus and chloroplast respectively. While mitochondria subsequently turned into double-membraned vacuoles after matrix degradation. Results of pigment analyses, 16S rRNA and genome sequencing revealed that TDX16 is a phycocyanin-containing cyanobacterium resembling Chroococcidiopsis thermalis, which had acquired 9,017,401 bp DNAs with 10,301 genes from its host. Accordingly, we conclude that organelle biogenesis in TDX16 is achieved by hybridizing the acquired eukaryotic DNAs with its own one and expressing the hybrid genome. The formation of organelles in cyanobacterium TDX16 is the first case of organelle biogenesis in prokaryotes observed so far, which sheds an unprecedented light on eukaryotes and their connections with prokaryotes, and thus has broad implications on biology.
Cite this paper: Dong, Q. , Xing, X. , Han, Y. , Wei, X. and Zhang, S. (2020) De Novo Organelle Biogenesis in the Cyanobacterium TDX16 Released from the Green Alga Haematococcus pluvialis. CellBio, 9, 29-84. doi: 10.4236/cellbio.2020.91003.

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