AJIBM  Vol.10 No.2 , February 2020
The Relationship between Ritual, Personal Involvement and Travel Intention: A Study of Check-in-Travel on DouYin
Abstract: This study aimed to understand the relationship among ritual, personal involvement and travel intention by examining short video clip users’ behavior. Data was gathered from 254 regular users and nonusers of Douyin, which is the most popular Chinese short video platform. Findings show that ritual is positively related to personal involvement, while both ritual and personal involvement are positively related to travel intention. Personal involvement was found to partially mediate the relationship between ritual and travel intention. Implications for destination managers, limitations and future research directions are discussed.
Cite this paper: Bian, R. and Zhu, M. (2020) The Relationship between Ritual, Personal Involvement and Travel Intention: A Study of Check-in-Travel on DouYin. American Journal of Industrial and Business Management, 10, 451-467. doi: 10.4236/ajibm.2020.102030.

[1]   Alba, J. W., & Williams, E. F. (2013). Pleasure Principles: A Review of Research on Hedonic Consumption. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 23, 2-18.

[2]   Anderson, J. C., & Gerbing, D. W. (1988). Structural Equation Modeling in Practice: A Review and Recommended Two-Step Approach. Psychological Bulletin, 103, 411-423.

[3]   Belk, R. W., Wallendorf, M., & Sherry Jr., J. F. (1989). The Sacred and the Profane in Consumer Behavior: Theodicy on the Odyssey. Journal of Consumer Research, 16, 1-38.

[4]   Bell, C. (1992). Ritual Theory, Ritual Practice. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

[5]   Blake, J. (2014). Identity on the March: Participating in Contentious Rituals in Northern Ireland. APSA 2014 Annual Meeting Paper.

[6]   Bradford, T. W., & Sherry Jr., J. F. (2013). Orchestrating Rituals through Retailers: An Examination of Gift Registry. Journal of Retailing, 89, 158-175.

[7]   Bushnell, M. (1997). Small School Ritual and Parent Involvement. The Urban Review, 29, 283-295.

[8]   Byrne, B. M. (2001). Structural Equation Modeling with AMOS, EQS, and LISREL: Comparative Approaches to Testing for the Factorial Validity of a Measuring Instrument. International Journal of Testing, 1, 55-86.

[9]   Chen, C. F., & Tsai, M. H. (2008). Perceived Value, Satisfaction, and Loyalty of TV Travel Product Shopping: Involvement as a Moderator. Tourism Management, 29, 1166-1171.

[10]   Cohn, P. J. (1990). Preperformance Routines in Sport: Theoretical Support and Practical Applications. The Sport Psychologist, 4, 301-312.

[11]   Collins, R. (2004). Interaction Ritual Chains. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

[12]   Crews, D. J., & Boutcher, S. H. (1986). An Exploratory Observational Behavior Analysis of Professional Golfers during Competition. Journal of Sport Behavior, 9, 51-58.

[13]   Darmody, A., & Bonsu, S. K. (2007). Ambivalence in Death Ritual Consumption. In S. Borghini, M. A. McGrath, & C. Otnes (Eds.), European Advances in Consumer Research (Vol. 8, pp. 51-52). Duluth: Association for Consumer Research.

[14]   Deflem, M. (1991). Ritual, Anti-Structure, and Religion: A Discussion of Victor Turner’s Processual Symbolic Analysis. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 30, 1-25.

[15]   Dohle, S., Rall, S., & Siegrist, M. (2014). I Cooked It Myself: Preparing Food Increases Liking and Consumption. Food Quality and Preference, 33, 14-16.

[16]   Durkheim, E. (1912). The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life. London: Allen & Unwin.

[17]   Feldman, D. C. (1977). The Role of Initiation Activities in Socialization. Human Relations, 30, 977-990.

[18]   Ferns, B. H., & Walls, A. (2012). Enduring Travel Involvement, Destination Brand Equity, and Travelers’ Visit Intentions: A Structural Model Analysis. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 1, 27-35.

[19]   Garson, D. (2001). PA 765 Statnotes: An Online Textbook (Vol. 2001).

[20]   Goffman, E. (1955). On Face-Work: An Analysis of Ritual Elements in Social Interaction. Psychiatry, 18, 213-231.

[21]   Graburn, N. H. (1983). The Anthropology of Tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 10, 9-33.

[22]   Graburn, N. H. (2004). Secular Ritual: A General Theory of Tourism. In S. B. Gmelch (Ed.), Tourists and Tourism: A Reader (pp. 23-34). Long Grove, IL: Waveland.

[23]   Grohmann, B. (2009). Gender Dimensions of Brand Personality. Journal of Marketing Research, 46, 105-119.

[24]   Gunter, B. G., & Gunter, N. C. (1980). Leisure Styles: A Conceptual Framework for Modem Leisure. Sociological Quarterly, 21, 361-374.

[25]   Hair, J. F., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L., & Black, W. C. (1984). Multivariate Data Analysis with Readings, 1995. Tulsa, OK: Petroleum Publishing.

[26]   Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E., & Tatham, R. L. (2006). Multivariate Data Analysis. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

[27]   Harrison, R., Reilly, T., & Gentry, J. (2010). Black Friday: A Video-Ethnography of an Experiential Shopping Event. In ACR North American Advances.

[28]   Hayashi, C., Suzuki, T., & Sasaki, M. (1992). Data Analysis for Comparative Social Research: International Perspectives. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers.

[29]   Hobson, N. M., Schroeder, J., Risen, J. L., Xygalatas, D., & Inzlicht, M. (2018). The Psychology of Rituals: An Integrative Review and Process-Based Framework. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 22, 260-284.

[30]   Hosany, S., & Witham, M. (2010). Dimensions of Cruisers’ Experiences, Satisfaction, and Intention to Recommend. Journal of Travel Research, 49, 351-364.

[31]   Huang, C. Y., Chou, C. J., & Lin, P. C. (2010). Involvement Theory in Constructing Bloggers’ Intention to Purchase Travel Products. Tourism Management, 31, 513-526.

[32]   Huang, Y. C., Backman, S. J., & Backman, K. F. (2012). Exploring the Impacts of Involvement and Flow Experiences in Second Life on People’s Travel Intentions. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, 3, 4-23.

[33]   Kapitány, R., & Nielsen, M. (2015). Adopting the Ritual Stance: The Role of Opacity and Context in Ritual and Everyday Actions. Cognition, 145, 13-29.

[34]   Kietzmann, J. H., Hermkens, K., McCarthy, I. P., & Silvestre, B. S. (2011). Social Media? Get Serious! Understanding the Functional Building Blocks of Social Media. Business Horizons, 54, 241-251.

[35]   Lee, S., Scott, D., & Kim, H. (2008). Celebrity Fan Involvement and Destination Perceptions. Annals of Tourism Research, 35, 809-832.

[36]   Liénard, P., & Boyer, P. (2006). Whence Collective Rituals? A Cultural Selection Model of Ritualized Behavior. American Anthropologist, 108, 814-827.

[37]   Mano, H., & Oliver, R. L. (1993). Assessing the Dimensionality and Structure of the Consumption Experience: Evaluation, Feeling, and Satisfaction. Journal of Consumer Research, 20, 451-466.

[38]   Marshall, D. (2005). Food as Ritual, Routine or Convention. Consumption Markets & Culture, 8, 69-85.

[39]   Matthews, T. (2017). Sacred Service: The Use of “Sacred Theory” in Service Design. Journal of Design, Business & Society, 3, 67-97.

[40]   Moufahim, M., & Lichrou, M. (2019). Pilgrimage, Consumption, and Rituals: Spiritual Authenticity in a Shia Muslim Pilgrimage. Tourism Management, 70, 322-332.

[41]   Oh, H., Fiore, A. M., & Jeoung, M. (2007). Measuring Experience Economy Concepts: Tourism Applications. Journal of Travel Research, 46, 119-132.

[42]   Okada, E. M. (2005). Justification Effects on Consumer Choice of Hedonic and Utilitarian Goods. Journal of Marketing Research, 42, 43-53.

[43]   Penguin Intelligence (2018). Users Research Report of Douyin & Kuaishou.

[44]   Petroshius, S. M., & Monroe, K. B. (1987). Effect of Product-Line Pricing Characteristics on Product Evaluations. Journal of Consumer Research, 13, 511-519.

[45]   Ratcliffe, E., Baxter, W. L., & Martin, N. (2019). Consumption Rituals Relating to Food and Drink: A Review and Research Agenda. Appetite, 134, 86-93.

[46]   Richards, G. (1996). Production and Consumption of European Cultural Tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 23, 261-283.

[47]   Robb, J. (2001). Island Identities: Ritual, Travel and the Creation of Difference in Neolithic Malta. European Journal of Archaeology, 4, 175-202.

[48]   Rook, D. W. (1985). The Ritual Dimension of Consumer Behavior. Journal of Consumer Research, 12, 251-264.

[49]   Rook, D. W., & Levy, S. J. (1999). Psychosocial Themes in Consumer Grooming Rituals. Brands, Consumers, Symbols and Research: Sidney J Levy on Marketing, 375, 21-43.

[50]   Rossano, M. J. (2012). The Essential Role of Ritual in the Transmission and Reinforcement of Social Norms. Psychological Bulletin, 138, 529-549.

[51]   Sherif, C. W., Kelly, M., Rodgers Jr., H. L., Sarup, G., & Tittler, B. I. (1973). Personal Involvement, Social Judgment, and Action. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 27, 311-328.

[52]   Sherif, M., & Cantril, H. (1947). The Psychology of Ego-Involvement: Social Attitudes and Identifications. New York: Wiley.

[53]   Sherry Jr., J. F. (1983). Gift Giving in Anthropological Perspective. Journal of Consumer Research, 10, 157-168.

[54]   Slama, M. E., & Tashchian, A. (1985). Selected Socioeconomic and Demographic Characteristics Associated with Purchasing Involvement. Journal of Marketing, 49, 72-82.

[55]   Smith, R. (1890). The Religion of the Semites. The Jewish Quarterly Review, 2, 178-182.

[56]   Sparks, B. (2007). Planning a Wine Tourism Vacation? Factors That Help to Predict Tourist Behavioral Intentions. Tourism Management, 28, 1180-1192.

[57]   Sweeney, J. C., & Soutar, G. N. (2001). Consumer Perceived Value: The Development of a Multiple-Item Scale. Journal of Retailing, 77, 203-220.

[58]   Tang, T. (2017). Tang Ting, The Impact of Ritual Perception on Evaluation of Gifts in Gift-Giving. Master’s Thesis, Changsha: Hunan University.

[59]   Tetreault, M. A. S., & Robert III, E. K. (1990). Ritual, Ritualized Behavior, and Habit: Refinements and Extensions of the Consumption Ritual Construct. In ACR North American Advances.

[60]   Vohs, K. D., Wang, Y., Gino, F., & Norton, M. I. (2013). Rituals Enhance Consumption. Psychological Science, 24, 1714-1721.

[61]   Voss, K. E., Spangenberg, E. R., & Grohmann, B. (2003). Measuring the Hedonic and Utilitarian Dimensions of Consumer Attitude. Journal of Marketing Research, 40, 310-320.

[62]   Watson, G. L., & Kopachevsky, J. P. (1994). Interpretations of Tourism as Commodity. Annals of Tourism Research, 21, 643-660.

[63]   Wee, C. H., Ta, S. J., & Cheok, K. H. (1995). Non-Price Determinants of Intention to Purchase Counterfeit Goods: An Exploratory Study. International Marketing Review, 12, 19-46.

[64]   Wright, D. E., & Snow, R. E. (1980). Consumption as Ritual in the High Technology Society. Rituals and Ceremonies in Popular Culture, 338.

[65]   Xiang, Z., & Gretzel, U. (2010). Role of Social Media in Online Travel Information Search. Tourism Management, 31, 179-188.

[66]   Yen, C. H., & Teng, H. Y. (2015). Celebrity Involvement, Perceived Value, and Behavioral Intentions in Popular Media-Induced Tourism. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 39, 225-244.

[67]   Zaichkowsky, J. L. (1985). Measuring the Involvement Construct. Journal of Consumer Research, 12, 341-352.