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 JEP  Vol.11 No.2 , February 2020
Factors Affecting Community-Based Tourism Development and Environmental Protection: Practical Study in Vietnam
Abstract: Community-based tourism (CBT) is considered as one of the typical types of tourism towards sustainable development with three important goals such as bringing back economic benefits, protecting natural environment and preserving indigenous cultural values. Therefore, this paper analyzes the factors that affect community ecotourism development associated with environmental protection in emerging economies, including Vietnam, by the method of key and community tourism potential value assessment with 721 sample surveys. In this paper, we have applied to assess the key factors of tourism in Vietnam and other key points to have more comprehensive solutions to promote the development of community-based tourism with environmental protection. The article has used guest-based approach and method of assessing the key success factors. The results of researching factors to develop community tourist (impacting tourist community needs of tourists) by running Logit function have shown the great influence of factors such as: environmental protection (influence factor +3.585780, with a statistical significance of 99%), security and safety (+3.024816—statistical significance 99%) followed by infrastructure conditions & facilities for the community based tourism, the level of information etc… for your community based tourism needs. From the research results, we propose the following policy groups: 1) Developing guidelines for CBT, the first step as a basis for the development of community based tourism laws later; 2) Policies related to the implementation of planning, development of key community tourist areas and destinations; 3) Policies related to the development of community-based tourism associated with the protection of natural and cultural environments; 4) Policies related to tourism management; coordinating monitoring of community tourism resource points; policies related to the local community in community tourism development; 5) Policies related to human resource development; promotion work; developing community based tourism products.

1. Introduction

Nowadays, community-based tourism is being regarded as a type of tourism that creates many benefits for both tourists and tourist destinations. In many localities, especially in the northern mountainous provinces of Vietnam, developing methods of community-based tourism has achieved initial success. Community-based tourism only achieves the goal of sustainable development when tourist-maker understands exactly and fully the characteristics of CBT for better management. Local people are the primary human resource to provide services to tourists. The host-guest relationship is the central of travel experience and directly affects tourism. The competitive advantage of CBT destinations is created by local resources, in which, human resource plays a decisive role as one of the most important indicators reflecting the level of tourism development at the destination. However, at the so-called CBT sites in Vietnam, people do not fully and exactly understand this type of tourism. Most labors have not been trained in tourism business. Therefore, they do not have enough knowledge, skills, special techniques and hospitality that are needed to perform tourism services. It can be said that HR training for CBT development is both urgent and strategic, and also a very important issue that must be placed on the top position for localities with a comparative advantage in developing community-based tourism in Vietnam.

2. Research Overview

Tourism with community participation that leave benefits to the community and environment protection, has been formed since the 70s of the XX century. It is one of the types of tourism chosen for the purpose of sustainable development instead of mass tourism. In the last years of the XX century and the first decade of the XXI century, the issue of CBT has been discussed at many scientific conferences, workshops and forums in the world in general and in Vietnam in particular with topics: origin and forming factors; operating principles; products for whom; target market is niche market or mass tourism market; benefits to the community and the environment [1]. However, so far there have been various translations of this type of travel from different languages into the English language. Therefore, the name is not consistent and there is no general definition of CBT in English language. For example, the original English word called: Community Tourism—CT; In European and North American countries, it is called as “Community-based Tourism (CBT) [2]. Community tourism is a form of tourism in which most local people take the lead in development and management. The economic benefits from tourism will remain in the local economy” (quoted from VNCPTDL 2004). The nature of CBT as an optional governance approach is a type of tourism operated by local communities and for local communities. Wall & Mathieson [3] states that “Community-based tourism emphasizes the local role of participation in tourism development. Opportunities for local community participation are direct investment, executive management and employment in tourism business and agricultural and handicraft service activities.” Shaw & William says that CBT needs local community involvement in governance and consensus [4], because it is a key element that is directly linked to the idea of community participation—adapted from Peter Robison and Peter Wiltshier [2], the equal position of local community in sharing the benefits from tourism activities. Community involvement is more than individual.

The concept of CBT is known in Murphy’s work and the author has done more in-depth research on local community development as well as tourism-related issues [5]. There are also other studies analyzing the links between local communities and tourism such as Okazaki [6], Aref [7]. CBT has been known as the perspectives, solutions and principles of sustainable tourism development [8]. CBT is a type of tourism in which local people have control and participation mainly in the development and management of tourism activities and the majority of the profits generated from tourism activities will be kept for locals. A community-based approach is a direction of development that is strongly endorsed in tourism development. The accessible community-based tourism destination is an ecosystem, where tourists interact with local living (local people, services provided) and weaknesses. This shows that the natural factors (landscape, sunlight) to experience tourism products [5]. Therefore, the principle of sustainable development emphasizes the community approach. Gradually, CBT has become one of the tourism categories with the main purpose of developing tourism in association with local economic prosperity and at the same time, it is also a typical tourism type aiming for sustainable development. However, the development of tourism without strict control will lead to fading of local cultural values, social evils taking place in the destination community and people’s daily lives dominated by commercial elements.

Participation of local people in tourism is considered as a key element in sustainable tourism development [5]. Participation raises people’s sense of control over issues that affect their own lives while promoting confidence and self-awareness [9]. In addition, Levi & Litwin [10] also consider community participation as a way to create a democratic procedural system in order to allow community members actively and responsibly participate in the development on their own and equally share the fruits of community development and improve their decision-making power. Community participation makes them self-aware, responsible for themselves and others, willing to share and interact [11].

Yanhong Liu & Ei Sandi Sett say that, Ecotourism is increasingly recognized as a community development tool with significant economic contribution [12]. The ecotourism industry is experiencing increasing popularity as the demand grows for tourism that is environmentally sensitive, informative, and beneficial for local communities. Generally, Myanmar, as in other developing countries, has been promoting its 15 protected areas as ecotourism sites, and there have been only few studies about ecotourism and community development. In this research, Inle Lake Wildlife Sanctuary (ILWS) was selected as a case study in order to assess the current status of ecotourism, also to evaluate the existing tourism-park-community relationships and impacts at this site where it is being promoted as a regional development strategy. Through an evaluation of the existing tourism-park-community relationships, opportunities and constraints are identified. Ecotourism development was found to be at an early stage in the study area, despite only other types of tourism such as nature-based tourism and cultural tourism have developed as a main stream for many years. Tourism activity has not contributed revenues towards conservation to date and as a result tourism has yet to raise funds for management or conservation activities. Socioeconomic benefits for the local community have been limited. Controversial activities will come in the form of increased employment opportunities from the development of ecotourism. This is especially important because many of the threats arising from the need of the local community to use natural resources for their livelihoods. Further recommendations are offered for the policy planners both of the government and the administrative bodies, as well as for the local communities of the Inle Lake. These are followed by the additional suggestions for further studies.

Dan Mihnea Diaconescu & Remus Moraru & Gabriela Stanciulescu say that, tourism is a multi-faced activity that links the economic, social and environmental components of sustainability [13]. Firstly, this research analyses residents’ perceptions of the impact of tourism development and examines the factors that influence the support for sustainable tourism development. Secondly, the research discusses Community Based Tourism (CBT) and its positive impact of tourism development; CBT is connected to community’s capacity to protect itself from outside threats by negotiating the quality of tourism development. Thirdly, Gastronomic Tourism development is depicted as an interaction between outside developers and local residents that ultimately builds a sustainable dialogue for growth of tourism. Usually, the partnerships established between local community residents and outside tourism developers began with initial resistance from residents and led to the following sequence of behaviour: town meetings, formal organization of residents, petitioning, public demonstration, and legal action. By examining collective action narratives in the study communities, a framework for sustainable rural tourism development is built to understand relationships between tourism impacts, sustainable development and community identity. Findings indicate that residents see tourism as a development factor. The natural, economic, and social-cultural environment as well as infrastructure, age, gender and education are factors that influence the sustainable development of tourism and gastronomic tourism [13].

Remus Ion Hornoiu say that, tourism, as a distinct field of activity, is strongly linked to climate change: in a positive way—by providing the necessary resources and factors to reduce the action of climate change through the use of alternative energy technologies with low environmental impact, and the controlled development of tourist flows? and a negative one? through energy consumption, visitors transportation, the quantities of waste. Among the solutions mentioned, the present research has focused on protected areas since the argument was less debated in the scientific literature, but also in business practice. As the main service providers regarding ecosystems and biological resources, protected areas meet the requirements to preserve species worldwide and are vulnerable to climate change. Tourism in protected may became a tourist travel motive more prominent in the future as the natural environment and the species from protected areas are threatened by climate change. Therefore, the paper explains different climate change impacts and implications for tourism in protected areas. The research field proposed aimed to assess the direct and indirect impact of climate changes for tourism in protected areas. The objectives were related to: determine the level of importance of different modifications in the structure of the major components of tourism in protected area under the direct climate change impact; indicate the importance level of changes in natural characteristics of environments which could influence negative tourism by reducing the perceived attractiveness of a protected area, under indirect climate change impact; highlight the importance level of modifications, induced by indirect climate change impact, in socioeconomic environment of local communities in protected areas which could affect tourism. Based on the research findings were elaborated proposals for an appropriate strategy in the field of climate change mitigation [14].

Community tourism in Vietnam is understood as: “A form of tourism activity with the role of community as participant and organization providing services to guests… Tourism activities aim to protect and conserve natural resources and the environment. At the same time solving jobs that enhance community life through the sharing of benefits from tourism. CBT needs to be supported by Governmental and Non-Governmental organizations” [1].

Although, there is a different definition in the content of the above CBT definitions, four main characteristics of CBT can be drawn as follows:

Firstly, demand is a community tourism market that is a niche market not a mass tourism market. Supply is based on the main resources in local communities to create products/services that meet the desired travel experience of the guests. CBT is a business activity, so on the one hand, the subject must abide and be governed by the law of supply-demand, price and competition. On the other hand, it must show the host-guest relationship.

Secondly, the comprehensive participation of local community is the soul and core element of CBT projects that use local resources at maximum. It is this comprehensive participation that determines the nature of CBT. On one hand, the local community is managerial entity of tourism activities. On the other hand, tourism products have more investment from local resources and more direct impact on the local economy that leave many benefits for the locality. In addition, CBT development requires the support of Governmental and non-governmental organizations.

Thirdly, community tourism development is sustainable development. A fair distribution of benefits between the actors involved in tourism production and consumption at the destination. The key components of a sustainable CBT development model include the owner—operator provider of goods and services, market demand—visitors, product distribution and consumer’s expectations. The centers of these components are: 1) intermediaries promoting sales—travel agents of tour operators; 2) technology to control inventories, support distribution and communication to consumers and supply chain organizations; 3) collect data to develop products and collect consumer feedback, control activities and products and evaluate services; 4) develop volunteer networks, philanthropists and society to support the development and supply of partner networks.

Fourthly, policies of the State and local authorities attract small and medium enterprises and local households to invest in material-technical facilities for tourism business. Encourage local residents to act as the investor, build and manage technical equipment, design and construction to provide accommodation services for guests in the form of eco-motels, villas, tourist villages. Design and construct restaurants to ensure catering services for guests in accordance with the environmental landscape and available materials of the destination.

Therefore, CBT is a type of tourism aimed at creating the highest benefit for local people. Tourists must pay when they visit the sightseeing areas and the money will be used to protect cultural and natural heritage or to help the local socio-economic development.

3. Research Methodology

1) Selection of survey sample:

With actual trendy characteristics of visitor flow to Vietnam, we have organized two surveys:

+ Survey on guest structure characteristics

This survey is combined with an assessment to evaluate resources using the TCM method. The survey has been mainly conducted at community tourism sites. It is a large sample survey in 2019 with more than 1700 votes generating 1016 valid votes.

+ Survey on the needs of travelers

Due to the characteristics of the source of visitors to Vietnam, for international visitors, the peak season is from February to May (lasting until mid-June) and November every year; and for domestic visitors, the peak season is about the end of May to the end of August every year. However, due to climate, community-based tourism activities in the North and Central region are strongest from mid-May to August every year (due to less rain in this season). Therefore, the latest survey is focused on assessing factors that affect to the development of community-based tourists to Vietnam, the article chose the time of the survey selected from May to July 2019. The number of votes is calculated by the formula:

n = N s 2 × Z 2 N × Δ 2 x + s 2 × Z 2 . (In which: N is the expected number of guests (from May -

July 2019); reliability = 95%; Δx within the permitted range = 5%; standard deviation based on variance of surveys on travel in our country). Actual number of samples surveyed is 830 samples, after eliminating the remaining damaged samples, 721 samples (larger than the sample calculated according to the above formula were 364 samples). Such a sampling method, especially with a large number of samples, ensures the accuracy and representation according to the nature of each survey (are presented in Table 1). Each survey has consulted and discussed with many expert groups to select points and sample to ensure the stability of community tourists.

2) Method of data processing

- Verification of data: After the data is collected, we conduct verification through the “cleaning” of data, eliminating the addition of unreliable information sheets and forms.

- Classification of data by statistical classification method: With different goals of investigation and analysis, the synthesis of documents is conducted on the basis of statistical classification method according to the following criteria:

Table 1. Distribution of survey samples.

Source: Authors’ summary from the 2019 survey.

guest structure based on nationality, gender, age, tourist preferences for each type of community tourism, etc. On the basis of collected data, summarized, data analysis is applied according to methods: statistical analysis methods and economic analysis methods, economic math methods…

- Methods of data processing: The article uses the EXEL program to calculate the absolute and relative values of economic and technical indicators related to the topic. In addition, the thesis also uses LIMDEP V8.0 to estimate the factors affecting visitors’ ecotourism needs.

3) Analysis methodologies

Method of economic mathematics is used in the article by logit regression correlation analysis to evaluate factors that affect the development of community tourist needs.

In this article, we have used the logit probability nonlinear probability function model with the following form:

Y i = P i = 1 1 + e z i In which: Z i = β + β i X i

Then we have:

L i = ln ( P i 1 P i ) = β + i = 1 n β i X i + u i

In the recipe above the ingredients include:

- Xi (i = 1 ÷ n) is the factor i affecting the probability of making a decision to participate in community tourism. Influential factors include: purpose of community tourism, information, security conditions, price, type of community tourism, weather conditions, infrastructure and facilities of the tourist destination, length of stay in the area and environmental protection work for resource points.

- β and βi (i = 1 ÷ n) are the free coefficients and the coefficients of the factors Xi

Y represents the decision of the tourist, if Y = 1 guest decides to go for community-based tourism; if Y = 0 guest decides not to go for community-based tourism. Use method of MLE (Maximum Likelihood Estimates) to estimate parameters of the model.

+ The critical success factor method—CSFs

The Critical Success Factors (CSFs) method was introduced by D. Ronald Daniel in the 1960s—the XX century [15] [16]). Daniel’s main motivation is “The need to eliminate problems that are not directly related to the success of the management information system planning process” [15]. CSFs are widely developed in the following decades, then Rockart, John F. [17] of MIT and since then have been popularized to support the implementation of strategies and projects. Since then CSF has been strongly developed and applied in many different ways such as: applying to the success factors of businesses, projects, strategies, for a locality, a region or a specific field, etc.

It is possible to summarize CSFs according to the following model:

Particularly in the field of community tourism, this method has been applied very popularly in the world. Some studies using this method include: assessing key successful factors of the Korean community tourism industry of Meng Shiunn Lee, Ya Han San, and Yu Ru Hsu [18], Douglas B. Trent [19] investigating the success of community-based tourism, Scott Parker & Anshuman Khare [20] has assessed the factors for sustainable tourism development in South Africa, etc..

However, there have been almost no studies in the use of CSFs in tourism and CBT. Therefore, in this article, we have applied to assess key factors of tourism in Vietnam and the key points to have more comprehensive solutions to promote the development of community-based tourism and environmental protection. The key factors are determined based on the scoring expert survey.

+ Evaluation methods on the value of community tourism potentials

From the reality of Vietnam tourism, after considering the status of resources, the resources in key areas are in the potential aspect. Therefore, in this article, we apply the “aggregate evaluation” method to evaluate the value to exploit and develop community-based tourism activities. The most commonly used method today.

➢ Evaluating steps

The steps are taken in the integrated evaluation model per below Figure 1:

Figure 1. Model of general evaluation.

In current research and practice, assessing the attractiveness of natural potentials use the scoring method for each characteristic criterion. The evaluation “first of all needs to identify a scale for evaluation. The number of levels may have several or fewer categories, depending on the urgency of the assessment” [21] [22]. “The evaluation is often performed by a jury to determine the score” [21] [23].

The scoring method used in the thesis to determine the value of tourism resources. Specifically, the review is based on two criteria: the attraction and the ability to exploit each resource. This method is conducted based on a scale built in accordance with the reality of the research area in the current period. In order to build a scale that is accurate and persuasive, in addition to refer to some points to assess community tourism potentials of some studies, we have consulted some opinions of experts.

➢ General evaluation and ranking

4) General scoring

After calculating the factors, it is calculated in the following way:

- Calculate the total score of factors

F = i = 1 n M i X i (1)

- Calculate the plus score of factors

F = M 1 X 1 M 2 X 2 M i X i (2)

In which: Mi is multiplier; Xi is evaluation norm; i = 1 → n; n: number of factors.

In the current study, people use both scoring methods. The calculation of points will have advantages when the resource is too wild or located in sensitive areas such as the defense area… so that resource is so attractive that it cannot be exploited for community tourism. In the paper we use the scoring method as all of the resources considered to set out for CBT development.

5) Classification of resource scores

After overall evaluation, one compares the ratio of total scores or the cumulative evaluation score to the maximum possible score for classification. It is a fairly common use in current research.

Second way: apply the distance formula between steps that can be calculated by Nguyen [24].

S = S max S min 1 + log H (3)

Smax: Maximum suction value; Smin: The least attractive value;

H: Number of points selected for evaluation

Or use a formula based on the rating [24] :

S = S max S min B (4)

B is number of evaluation levels

In addition, in some studies one could classify as: Type 1: resources reaching 70% or more points; Type 2: Resources with 50% to less than 70% points, Type 3: under 50% points. In this article we use formula (2) to classify resources.

➢ Evaluation criteria

In the past, to assess the value of resources for CBT based on the general evaluation method, people often evaluate in the following aspects:

- Evaluate the ability to attract customers

- Assess the ability to exploit community-based tourism resources

However, right now, in order to have a basis for orientation and organization for the exploitation of natural resources, people have added:

- Assess the requirement of “investment cost” for resource points

Specifically evaluation criteria are as follows:

a) Evaluation on the capability to attract guests

It aims to build 4 primary criteria: attractiveness; security; cohesion; quality of infrastructure and tourism technical facilities.

- The attraction of natural tourism resources is the beauty of natural landscapes, the diversity of terrain, the biodiversity and the suitability of climate for human health, unique primitive nature of monuments and natural phenomena.

- Safety is determined by the situation of political security, social order and environmental sanitation.

- The cohesion is determined by the number of destinations and the distance among destinations in a given space and the degree of convenience to link destinations into tourist routes or clusters.

- Tourism infrastructure and material facilities are determined by the convenience and uniformity of the transportation network, communications, electricity, water, facilities serving the needs for meals, accommodation and entertainment… for visitors.

In opinion of many researchers, each of the above criteria is evaluated in 4 grades: 4, 3, 2, 1 corresponding to the level of assessment from high to low (good, fair, average and poor). The evaluation criteria have an impact aiming to attract visitors at different levels. Therefore, to get an accurate summary, it is necessary to determine the multiplier for each criterion according to its impact level. Based on the aggregate score after multiplying the coefficient, the tourism resource points will be classified into 3 categories as follows:

- Type of high tourist attraction: Tourism resources of this group are able to attract both international and domestic visitors.

- Type of average attraction: Tourism resources in this group currently are capability to attract domestic tourists. For international visitors, it needs a greater investment.

- Type of poor attraction: Tourism resources of this group are only able to attract tourists in the locality

b) Evaluation on the capability to exploit eco-tourism resources

In addition to the criteria of attractiveness, safety, connectivity, physical infrastructure of tourism, people also use three other criteria: seasonality, sustainability and tourism capacity at each resource point.

- Seasonality is determined by the number of appropriate days in the year to organize tourist activities, welcome and serve tourists’ needs.

- Sustainability is the capability to preserve and maintain natural components under pressure from tourism activities and natural phenomena.

- Tourist capacity is the maximum total capacity of tourists at a certain time of day at a tourist resource point. The above criteria are also evaluated according to 4 grades: 4, 3, 2, 1.

Overall evaluation point after handling the disagreement of experts and multiplying the coefficient to determine the importance of criteria for tourism activities.

Based on the aggregate of criteria, the ability to exploit tourist resources is divided into 3 categories as follows:

Type 1: This type of tourism resource has many advantages of being able to exploit to serve both international and domestic visitors.

Type 2: This type has advantages at medium level of exploitation. It is often necessary to have an investment project with a sizable capital to serve tourists.

Type 3: This type of exploitation value is not favorable, so it is difficult to organize tourism activities. Often this type need good investment to exploit for tourists.

c) Evaluation on the requirements of “investment cost” for resource points

In order to have a basis for orientations and solutions to develop community-based tourism in the area, it is necessary to evaluate and estimate the ability of investment costs for resource points. This assessment is based on the relative aspects of “tourist destinations”, not to mention the existing advantages of facilities at each resource point such as: garden house resources is reviewed on each garden house; and national park is considered on the whole resort… and considered in local capacity. This method has been introduced by D. Olsen [25], Meng Shiunn Lee, Ya Han San, and Yu Ru Hsu [18], although he has gone deeper to assess the risk of investment.

- Requirements on investment capital for on-site tourism facilities: For this type, only investment in basic services such as accommodation and meals and some other additional services will be calculated…. not counting to premium entertainment services.

- Investment in infrastructure: It is investment that is calculated for investment in infrastructure leading to points and in each resource point.

- Requirements on organization and management qualifications: To be evaluated based on:

+ The fragile nature of community tourism resources. It requires an appropriate organizational system and strict management to ensure sustainable development.

+ The complexity of services

Based on the aggregate of criteria, tourism resource points are divided into 3 categories as follows:

Type 1: For this type, it requires high investment capital to be able to put into customer service, so consideration must be given to investment priority.

Type 2: For this type, the average investment is required to serve customers.

Type 3: With a small investment capital and if it belongs to specific natural resources, priority should be given to investment.

Summary of criteria for assessing the value of resources are summarized in Table 2.

4. Research Results and Discussion

To study the factors affecting the development of community-based tourism, we use 02 methods:

- The critical success factor method (CSFs).

- Approach method from visitors: by the evaluation on factors affecting the development of community-based tourism to provide resources to meet that demand.

4.1. Evaluating Factors to the Development of Community-Based Tourism to Key Tourist areas

Assessing the factors that affect community-based tourism development (ie assessing the needs of community tourists) is a necessary job.

It is considered as a method to adjust the input resources. Researcher of the Ministry of Culture and Tourism, Roby Ardiwidjaja pointed out the necessity of studying tourist needs in consideration the “resources of destinations” [26].

Our first goal is to consider the factors that influence the growth of the number of “key points” of the region. However, after discussing with a lot of expert groups, everyone thought that, with the topic of using such approach and terminology, it is not accurate. It is necessary to study the needs of the CBT visitors of the region. Due to the following reasons:

- Firstly, the characteristics of trip tendency of visitors to Vietnam are still largely based on the type of cultural tourism, especially international tourists. Therefore, the market of CBT in the period from now to 2020 is still the source of cultural tourists to the region.

- Secondly, as the nature of tourists traveling to Vietnam, people are moving around many tourist sites (in the combination). In particular, CBT in the newly developed region, therefore, it is necessary to do survey on the needs of travelers who tend to “stable” tourism (not those who do not have a clear tourism purpose) as a market to exploit community tourism, especially international tourists.

- Thirdly, tourism activities of the development region focus mainly in a

Table 2. Summary all evaluation criteria on resource value.

Source: Compiled from author’s studies.

number of localities and key areas. The development of CBT is concentrated at several key points in the region. The zonation of the community tourism site in this study has almost represented most of the community-based tourism activities (period to 2020). Therefore, the CBT needs to get focused at some developed tourism activities. It is also the trend of community tourists to Vietnam in general and focused areas in particular.

Experts also agree to stand at the topic level, in terms of name and approach: investigating the development of community tourists to Vietnam or to key points of Vietnam. It is not about to find out the needs of each community-based tourism.

The method used is a non-repetitive sampling survey method. The study has selected development tourism destinations in the region. The number of votes is

calculated by the formula: n = N t 2 × δ 2 N × Δ 2 x + t 2 × δ 2 . (In which, take t = 2. Therefore,

we have: reliability = 0.9545; Δx within the permitted scope = 5%; δ = 0.2435 is the variance commonly taken in tourism surveys in Vietnam). Due to the characteristics of the source of visitors to Vietnam, we chose the time from May to July 2019 as the time to organize the official investigation. It is a time of relative stability in the number of arrivals in the region for both international and domestic visitors. At the same time, due to the characteristics of weather conditions, this time is also the most favorable time for guests to participate in community tourism in the region (these months with little rain). Therefore, the expected volume of tourist (N) is calculated by the ratio of seasonal index (from May 7, 2019) to total index for whole year multiplied by the predicted number of visitors in 2019 [27]. The actual number of samples surveyed are 830 samples, after eliminating the remaining samples, 721 samples (larger than the sample of that above formula are 384 samples), including 244 samples of international visitors.

In order to estimate the factors affecting the development of eco-tourists, we used a functional model of logitual nonlinear probability model function, which is constructed as follows:

Y i = P i = 1 1 + e z i In which: Z i = β + β i X i

Then we have:

L i = ln ( P i 1 P i ) = β + i = 1 n β i X i + u i

In above formula, the components include:

- Xi (i = 1 ÷ n) is factor i which affect the probability of decision to participate in community-based tourism. Influential factors include purpose of community-based tourism, information, security conditions, pricing, type of community-based tourism, weather conditions, infrastructure and facilities of the tourist destination, length of stay in the area and environmental protection work for resource points.

- β and βi (i = 1 ÷ n) are free coefficients and coefficients of factors Xi;

Y represents tourist decision, if Y = 1, guest decides to go on a community trip, if Y = 0, guest is not traveling in the community. Using the Maximum Likelihood Estimates method to estimate the parameters of the model. Following are variables used in the LOGIT model that reflect the relationship between factors and probability of visiting a community based traveler in Vietnam in 2019.

- β and βi (i = 1 ÷ n) are free coefficients and coefficients of factors Xi;

Y represents tourist decision, if Y = 1, guest decides to go on a community trip; if Y = 0, guest is not traveling in the community. Using the Maximum Likelihood Estimates method to estimate parameters of the model. Following are variables used in the LOGIT model that reflect the relationship between factors and probability of visiting a community-based traveler in Vietnam in 2019 (according to Table 3).

Above model is processed on LIMDEP V 8.0 software. However, prior running above model, we test the independence of boundaries with the “correlation” command in the Exel software to avoid having too many pairs of interdependent numbers that could falsify the model’s results.

The results of multinomial analysis are summarized in the following table. Effect coefficient evaluates influence of factors on the tourism needs of travelers.

The results show that likelihood ratio test statistics of the model is 739.8538 with significance less than 0.001 (it means 99% statistically significant). With this result, we can reject H0, that is, reject the hypothesis that all regression coefficients are zero and accept H1, the hypothesis that not all the regression coefficients are equal to 0. Therefore, the given model is reasonable and suitable to reality at the significant level of 0.001. It can also be demonstrated by Chi-Square

Table 3. List of variables used in the Logit model.

Source: survey data in 2019 and calculation by author.

statistical tests for model of 739.8538 with 10 degrees of freedom. Assume that the significance of a non-intercept coefficients is zero (=0). Check χ2 by looking up to the table (10 degrees of freedom with significant meaning 0.01) is 25.1882 less than LR (Likelihood ratio) calculating above. It means that logit function model is of high significance in assessing the factors affecting to CBT needs. Predictable ability correctly of the model is very convincing, the percentage of correctly predicting the number of guests with community tourism needs reaches 96% (according to Table 4).

Coefficient β and coefficients βi of independent variables: X1 (Purpose of community-based tourism); X2 (Information level); X3 (Conditions of security and safety); X6 (Condition of infrastructure and facilities); X7 (Weather conditions); X8 (Length of stay); X9 (Community-based tourism with environmental protection) as mostly statistically significant at the 99% level. Variable X10 (Number of specific products) is statistically significant at 95%. Variable X4 (Community-based tourism program pricing) is statistically significant at the 90% level. Particularly, variable X5 (Number of type of community-based tourism) is not statistically significant with influence on the probability of a community-based tourism decision.

Via community-based tourism survey, we found that, for a community tourism

Table 4. Results of estimating factors that affect the development of ecotourism by a Logit function.

Source: survey data in 2019 and calculation by author.

type (variable X5), community-based tourism activities focus mainly on the types of mountainous and seaside vacation, sightseeing, exploring rural areas, etc. However, due to the fragmented organization, it is not attractive. Especially due to the lack of specific products, many visitors who participate in the CBD of the region if being asked, may answer that they do not need many types, sometimes just one type but with an attractive product is possible to entice them. In addition, due to general information on CBT of the whole region or a specific locality provided to visitors is very limited. Travelling agencies often only offer specific community-based tourism products. Therefore, this information is inaccurate so the meaning is not high (X5 variable is not statistically significant).

Survey result on the factors that affect to the demand for CBT have shown us that the coefficient of influence on the constant is quite large and the direction (-) indicates that influence of other factors (in addition to the factors taken into consideration in the model) are very large and have an adverse effect that limit the need for community-based travel. It can be reasonably explained in practice because CBT needs are also influenced by other factors, some of which we do not fully understand, many of which are extremely limiting the need for community tourism.

Influence coefficients of other factors including variables: X1, X2, X3, X6, X7, X8, X9, X10, all have positive influence coefficient (+) at the corresponding significance level. Thus, the higher these variables are, the higher the purpose of community-based tourism; the higher the safety condition; more and more specific products; weather conditions as possible; the better the infrastructure and comfort conditions, the better the community’s capability to make travel options. Among the above factors, we see that variable X9 (environmental protection) has the greatest impact, with a coefficient β = 3.585780, the statistical significance level is 99%. That is, if the more eco-tourism resource points of Vietnam are protected, the higher the possibility of tourists’ community-based tourism options. It is in line with the general trend of travelers in selecting tourist destinations today. Variable X3 (safety condition) also has a large positive (+) influence coefficient (3.024816). It has been proven in practice if the current situation of political security in the region and countries around the world, there are complicated fluctuations, especially terrorism is increasing so visitors are afraid to travel to places that are known to have low security and safety. Above, X4 variable (community tourism program pricing) has a coefficient of β = −0.600972, with a statistical significance of 90%, indicating that if the community-based tourism program pricing increases, it will limit the choice of tourists to select the community-based tourism.

Among independent variables are considered, variable X8 (TGIAN) is the length of stay or travel time in Vietnam with a “positive” coefficient of influence (1.476103), i.e. ln(p/(1 − p)) increase by 1.476103. Or more specifically, the odds ratio of event (odds ratio −p/(1 − p)). Park Hun Myoung, community-based tourism will increase by an amount of e1.476103 = 4.37 [28]. Therefore, the probability for Y = 1 is 81% if the previous visitor has not chosen to travel in the community; it indicates that when length of stay or travel time in the region increases, the ability to choose to community-based travel is very high. However, to be more specific, we need to consider the marginal effects. In the context of other factors, if the guest stays or increases by 01 day compared to the present, the probability of choosing a community-based trip increases by 0.214%. Similarly, under the other fixed conditions, if the price of a CBT program increases by VND 1.000 compared to the present, the probability of selecting a community trip decreases by 0.087% of guest number. Joining in community-based tourism with a statistical significance of 90%. Based on sample survey data, an additional 0.63 visitors will be reduced (currently 34% of guests do not choose community-based tourism).

In summary, although it is not possible to take into consideration all the factors, but the measurement results of the above model with the analysis of 10 factors affecting to the development of community-based tourism (on the community tourism needs of visitors) has given us a certain aspect of promoting community-based tourism activity development. In which, in order to be able to attract visitors, we must constantly improve the promotion to visitors; improve safety conditions, infrastructure and facilities, comfort conditions at community tourist sites, develop many specific products… on the other hand, we must have reasonable price policy. It will have an effect of stimulating tourists’ community-based tourism even before coming to Vietnam they have no intention of participating in community tourism programs.

4.2. Evaluating Key Success Factors (CSFs) for Key CBT Destinations in Vietnam

This method is used to evaluate both CBT tourism in Vietnam and each tourism focus in the region. Because CBT spreads across 63 provinces and cities, in fact due to different resources of the localities, the development of tourism activities in the localities is also uneven, so the priority policy for tourism is different in level, etc. Therefore, it is necessary to consider success factor for each focal point in the region.

In order to use this method, we use an expert (Delphi) to score with the steps: Step 1: Identify the list of key elements -> Step 2: With expert opinion on the factors and weights - > Step 3: Combination of factors; -> Step 4: Return some test experts.

Among factors sent to experts, based on the four main groups of factors proposed by Crounch and Ritchie for the tourism industry based on the competitive advantage of the destination called: “contextual standards” adjusted with expert opinion to adjust to the requirements [29], including:

1) Supporting factors and resources include: infrastructure, accessibility, etc.

2) Location factors: location, resource conditions, attractiveness.

3) Management factors: management, marketing, operational organization and costs.

4) Standard condition factors: safety, surroundings.

Daniel say that’s, points out that most industries contain 3 - 6 factors that can determine success and should be the focus of business performance for industry performance [15].

Experts agree that all key success factors at the focal points of the region are the same (perhaps a regional factor). Because the focal points are all in tourism in Vietnam, there are quite similar natural and social conditions, the density and type of resources at the focal points are the same, the resources are still largely in terms of potential, although the level of investment and the development of CBT at some key points is “different”. However, according to the assessment, it has not made a complete difference.

Experts say that it is the main factor to create the advantages of key points in Vietnam’s tourism, etc.

After eliminating the factors, the remaining key factors are according to Table 5:

Scores and weights are given by experts with a scale of 10 for each element, and the total weight (=1).

In the world, there are many methods to calculate CSFs. Using econometric software SPSS, EVIEW, MFIT, STATA etc. is the correct method … to estimate measurements such as the research of Meng Shiunn Lee, Ya Han San and Yu Ru Hsu in order to assess the key success factor of Korean community-based tourism industry [18]. However, such studies require elaborate investment with large sampling (over 30 experts). Many other studies use simpler methods. In this study, due to limitations on many factors we use a simple estimation method.

Table 5. Key success factors are key to Vietnam.

Source: survey data in 2019 and calculation by author.

With evaluation table we see that for Vietnam: key factors are group of environmental factors which support services & infrastructure elements, promote factors, human resource training and policies, management and location advantage. Among the environmental factors, the security and safety factors have a large impact factor (+2.006). It is also pointed out in many other studies around the world, if concerns about insecurity (terrorism …) are increasing in the world. It is evaluated as having a high security and safety coefficient, so it is a favorable condition for tourism activities in general and community-based tourism in particular. However, the security and safety for community-based tourism is also related to many issues such as: rescue system, correction of evils such as begging, theft … etc. tourist destination. It is the problem that we need to continue rectifying.

Environmental protection is also a highly influential factor. This assessment is still a matter. Information for community-based tourism has a high impact factor (1.380) with a relatively high weight of experts (0.176), as it is an important factor to promote the development of CBT. However, this work in Vietnam is still very weak. Therefore this work must be strengthened. Factors such as infrastructure & technical facilities, staff training, community education, business support, product prices, specific products are also key factors that need to be stepped up (according to Table 6).

Particularly the diversity and the attractiveness of resources, although Vietnam is assessed to have a high diversity and density of resource attraction. However, the weight is lower than other factors because of important resources but if it is not well managed and organized, community-based tourism activities will not develop this activity, especially in the present time. The competition is very strong in the Asia-Pacific region.

- For Vietnam’s key points: There are three areas where experts think the key success factors are the same and Vietnam’s success factors. That is:

+ Northern mountainous region and adjacent areas

+ North Central and surrounding areas

+ The South and the surrounding

We have exchanged a lot with experts and experts said that community-based tourism in Vietnam is mainly developed in these three areas (coming and maybe after 2025). These three points have relatively similar conditions for resource distribution, the elements of social and environmental conditions that are located on the “heritage path scheme” and also known resources. These areas have been developed in terms of community-based tourism, and infrastructure & technical facilities have also made certain investments. In particular, although each area is located in an area but it is also quite close to each other. In addition, it is a study that assesses “key success factors” that must address these important factors. Therefore, as a whole, the key success factors for these three regions are the same and they are also the success factors for all three regions.

Therefore, for these three areas, it is necessary to continue pushing key success factors, namely safety, security, environmental protection, strengthening of

Table 6. Evaluating key success factors for CBT in Vietnam and focus points.

Source: survey data in 2019 and calculation by author.

infrastructure & technical facilities, especially support services for guests such as entertainment systems, etc. as well as information elements, specific products, product prices, etc.

The expert scoring has many advantages in the CSFs method. However, to better understand key success factors, in many CSFs many studies have applied expert judgment and visitor opinions. Guests will choose the factor that influences their community travel. Of course, some factors such as the State support, etc., guests will not evaluate, these factors must rely on experts, etc. The way to evaluate CSFs based on this approach is Ralf Knoll and has been applied by some studies [30].

With a survey of 721 visitors using the LIMDEP V80 software, we continue to run the Matrix section of the LOGIT regression model to evaluate the influence of each variable in the total variable (according to Table 7).

Expressed on the matrix with the assignment of ranking method, using the software EXEL graph expression with two parallel vertical axis as follows (Figure 2).

According to Ralf Knoll [30], the ranking factor is “active” factor (guest), the guest rating is objective factor (Passive). The rating of experts and guests may be different from factors such as: The evaluation coefficient for the guests’ environmental protection is high (the difference is proportional to the other factors), greater than the difference in proportion to other factors given by the expert, called the “expectation factor” (customer view) which needs to be motivated at all times. The factors of both sides are ranked quite similarly (compared to other factors) that the balance factor (balance) must always reach a high state. The expert factor for higher is the maintenance factor (ie always try to keep stable).

By combining two assessments, we find that the security and information factors are highly appreciated by both guests and experts. These are factors that

Table 7. Estimating matrix impact with factors using logit model.

-(***), (**), (*) indicate statistical significance level as 1%; 5%; 10% respectively. Source: surveys data in 2019 and calculations of authors.

Figure 2. Combining ranking per method of CSFs for VDLBTB.

need to be directed and maintained at a high level. This factor is “indispensable” to develop community-based tourism. The elements of environmental protection, infrastructure & facilities and specific products are necessary to promote. Pricing factors must always be maintained.

· For key points:

For regions: The North and its vicinity (Sub-region I); Central and surrounding areas; The South and the surrounding (Sub-region II). The key success factors that combine the two assessments need to be considered the same as the tourism regions in Vietnam. The combination of 02 assessments is shown in Figure 3.

Although a number of key factors are different from experts in other areas, impact level is also different. However, regional difference in order is not large. Therefore, for these key points, efforts must be made to ensure that the security and information factors need to be high. At the same time, promoting environmental protection factors, infrastructure and specific products and it must have strategies to maintain attractive prices to attract visitors and promote community tourism development.

5. Policy Recommendations

Building Perspectives for CBT Development

An important issue that is considered to be the foundation for sustainable

Figure 3. Combination of ranking at some focused points.

community-based tourism development as the development of public opinion perspectives. This work is also considered as a premise to set up mechanisms and policies as well as steps to organize tourism activities in Vietnam in general and community tourism in particular. Building development perspectives will not only accelerate the development of CBT activities, but also make community tourism more consistent and sustainable. In most countries with developed community-based tourism activities such as Austria, England, Australia, etc. and new countries developing community-based tourism such as: Belize, Ecuador, Senegal, Indonesia, Malaysia, etc, the development of CBT perspectives is often identified and developed prior to the implementation of policies, development of planning and guiding principles for CBT.

Particularly in Vietnam in general and community-based tourism in particular, in our opinion, one of primary causes is that we have not yet developed and implemented the systematic view of community-based tourism development. It has therefore constrained sustainable community-based tourism development. It is necessary to develop views for community-based tourism development such as:

- Developing community-based tourism in line with national, regional and local tourism development strategies

- Community-based tourism development must support nature conservation programs in compliance with regulations related to tourism and environmental conservation

- Developing community-based tourism in association with the protection of traditional indigenous cultural values

- Developing sustainable community-based tourism to optimize economic and social benefits

- Developing community-based tourism closely linked to the local community, bringing benefits to the local community

- Developing community-based tourism based on local potential and materials

- Developing community-based tourism along with the protection of security and national defense

In our opinion, we first need to issue the following policy groups:

- Developing guidelines for CBT, the first step as a basis for the development of CBT later

- Policies related to the implementation of planning, development of key community tourist areas and destinations

- Policies related to the development of CBT in association with the protection of the natural and cultural environment

- Policies related to tourist management; monitoring of community tourism resource points; Policies related to local communities in community tourism development

- Policies related to human resource development; promotion work; developing community based tourism products

Besides the promulgation of policies, we also propose the promulgation of operational principles for CBT. Experience in developing community-based tourism in many countries is a very important condition for CBT development and resources.

6. Conclusions

In order to identify the orientation and approach of resources to devise solutions to develop community-based tourism in the focal points in particular and Vietnam in general. The article used the client approach and the critical success factor method (CSFs). Results of researching factors to develop community-based tourism (influence to the need of community-based tourism) by running Logit function have pointed out the great effects of factors such as: environmental protection (influence coefficient +3.585780, with a statistical significance of 99%), security and safety (+3.024816—statistical significance 99%) followed by infrastructure conditions & facilities for the community-based tourism, the level of information etc. … for your community-based tourism needs. However, these are areas that are still weak in developing countries like Vietnam.

The results of the CSFs assessment, the main success factors of the region and the key points to note are assessed with high scores such as security and safety (2006 points); environmental protection (1953 points). Factors such as destination information; the infrastructure; community-based tourism management and organization; specific products; community education are underestimated. Combining evaluations of two methods, we see that the security and information factors are highly appreciated by both guests and experts. These are factors that need to be directed and maintained at a high level. The elements of environmental protection, infrastructure & facilities and specific products are always trying to promote. Price factors must always be maintained. Only in this way can the development of community-based tourism be integrated with environmental protection in developing countries in general and Vietnam in particular.

Thus, although it is not possible to take into consideration all the factors, through the measurement results of the above model with the analysis of 10 factors affecting the travel demand of tourists for them, we see a certain aspect in promoting the development of tourism activities. However, studies like these require elaborate investment with large sampling and due to a limited number of factors we use a simple estimation method. In the future, new larger samples will need to be researched and an evaluation method with more specific variables used. This will have the effect of stimulating visitors’ community tourism even before the destination they are not planning to join community tourism programs.

NOTES

*First author.

#Corresponding author.

Cite this paper: Phuong, N. , Song, N. and Quang, T. (2020) Factors Affecting Community-Based Tourism Development and Environmental Protection: Practical Study in Vietnam. Journal of Environmental Protection, 11, 124-151. doi: 10.4236/jep.2020.112009.
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