The report of the 19th CPC National Congress pointed out that China’s economy has shifted from a high-speed growth stage to a high-quality development stage. It is now in the tackling phase of transforming the development mode, optimizing the economic structure, and transforming the growth momentum. We must adhere to quality first, efficiency first, and promote the quality of economic development. Reform, efficiency change, and power change continue to enhance China’s economic innovation and competitiveness. Jin (2018) found that the provinces (municipalities and autonomous regions) have very different economic development foundations due to differences in geographical location, resource endowment, and policy preferences. Differentiated high-quality economic development paths should be adopted. Shanxi Province is an important energy supply base in China. During the development stage of heavy chemical industry, rich coal resources have promoted rapid economic growth, but it has also brought about simplification of the industry, lack of human capital, damage to the ecological environment, and serious rent-seeking phenomena. Such problems once fell into the “resource curse” trap. Under the dual pressure of reducing coal production capacity and increasing environmental protection, economic development is facing greater difficulties. As a national energy province, the success of Shanxi’s transformation is particularly important for high-quality development. And accurately grasping the stage and orientation of Shanxi’s high-quality development is the prerequisite basis for doing a good job. This article takes Shanxi Province as an example, through data analysis, comparative research, commissioned research, etc., and learns from the new measures and policies of the Yangtze River Delta and the central provinces, and conducts in-depth research on the issue of promoting high-quality development in the province.
2. Theoretical Basis
According to the spirit of General Secretary Xi Jinping’s series of important speeches and important expositions on high-quality economic development, Duan et al. (2018) believes that high-quality economic development is a development that reflects the new development concept, a development that adheres to the requirements of innovation, coordination, green, openness, and shared development; it is based on quality change, efficiency change, and power change to promote the synchronization of factor input and product service quality The development of improvement, simultaneous improvement of macro and micro efficiency, simultaneous conversion of supply-side power and demand-side power; high-quality allocation of resources, low resource and environmental costs, and good economic and social benefits; development based on the improvement of people’s well-being Point of development.
The static high-quality economic development requires the construction of a complete set of indicator systems and standard values according to the “two hundred years” goal. The dynamic high-quality economic development is a continuous improvement process. The definition of high-quality economic development adopted in this paper is reference Chen (2018) dynamic high-quality economic development, which is essentially consistent with the improvement of the quality of economic development.
In order to objectively reflect the overall level of high-quality development in Shanxi, and in accordance with the country’s main indicator framework for high-quality development, an economic development quality evaluation index system including five dimensions of innovative development, coordinated development, green development, open development, and shared development was adopted. The global principal component analysis measures the quality of Shanxi’s economic development.
1) Model establishment
Ren and Wen (2018) found that GPCA expands the data table of the statistical year in time to form a global data table, transforms it into a unified hyperplane, and then performs classic principal component analysis on the constructed global data table. Therefore, GPCA can perform both horizontal comparison of the evaluation objects and vertical comparison of the time of the evaluation objects, ensuring the uniformity, completeness and comparability in the data analysis process. The key processes of GPCA are as follows:
Let the indicator weight be w, then:
Among them, F refers to the comprehensive evaluation coefficient. is the characteristic root of the i principal component, is the score of the i principal component without standardization, and q is the sum of the characteristic roots of the principal components.
2) Measurement results
In view of the high-quality development statistical indicator system that is still being explored and developed, some provinces (municipalities, autonomous regions) have some data that are difficult to obtain. The 27 indicators that were finally included in the calculation include 18 dynamic indicators. This article reference Shi and Ren (2018) uses 2018 data to calculate and calculate the high-quality development indexes of the whole country, Shanxi, and other provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities from three dimensions: comprehensive development, sub-area development, and dynamic development (Table 1, Table 2).
Table 1. National and provincial high-quality development evaluation indexes.
Table 2. National and provincial high-quality development dynamic indexes.
Through quantitative comparison of the indexes, the conclusion and conclusion of Shanxi Province in the country’s high-quality development matrix are as follows:
First, from the overall situation analysis, Shanxi’s high-quality development level ranks in the middle and lower reaches of the country, and it has a significant gap with developed coastal areas such as Shanghai, Jiangsu, Zhejiang and Zhejiang. In 2018, the comprehensive index of Shanxi’s high-quality development was 73.1, which was 4.5 points lower than the national average, ranking 24th in the country, and lower than the economic aggregate in the country (22nd). Compared with Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang, Shanxi’s economic aggregate is relatively small and its development foundation is relatively weak. With a population of 2.675% of the country, it only produced 1.868% of GDP. The Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang indices all exceeded 80, which can be said to have entered the stage of high-quality development above the intermediate level. Looking at the central region, the Shanxi Composite Index is only higher than that of Jiangxi Province, and far behind Henan, Hubei and other provinces.
Secondly, from the perspective of sub-sectors, the five major developments in Shanxi are still unbalanced. Innovative development is behind the country and coordinated development is relatively high. Green development, open development, and shared development are located in the middle reaches of the country. The five major development sub-indexes differ greatly, in 2018 they were 67.2, 78.5, 77.4, 62.4, and 74.2, respectively, ranking 19th, 10th, 17th, 18th, and 16th in the country. Among them, the innovation development index ranked last, reflecting that Shanxi’s degree of innovation is not active enough, which is also related to the lack of major national innovation platforms and the layout of major innovation projects. The coordinated development index performed well, but it must be recognized that the insufficient development of urban and rural areas is a prominent issue and is a relatively low level of balanced coordination. Green development and open development are slightly lower than the national average, but they are very different from Shanghai, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, and other provinces in central China. This has verified the trend of the Shanxi’s ecological environment from bad to good and the opening up of the coast from coastal to inland Features. Shared development this is also Shanxi’s outstanding shortcoming, indicating that the task of fighting poverty and improving people’s livelihood is particularly difficult.
Third, from the analysis of future potential, Shanxi is in a good position to promote high-quality development. It is the vanguard of the second square in the country, faster than the Yangtze River Delta and tied for fourth place in the middle with Henan. Among them, the development momentum of innovation is the most eye-catching, and the trend of coordinated, open, and shared development is relatively stable, and green development has achieved remarkable results. Shanxi’s high-quality development has a good momentum. In 2018, the high-quality development dynamic index was 81.1, 0.2 percentage points higher than the national average, ranking 12th in the country, and 1.7, 0.7, and 0.8 percentage points higher than Shanghai, Jiangsu, and Zhejiang, respectively. The five major development sub-indices are 85.8, 73, 71.9, 78.1, and 64.7 respectively, ranking the 14th, 23rd, 15th, 20th, and 21st in the country respectively. Among them, the “transcripts” of innovation and green development are outstanding, and coordination, openness, and shared progress better. It can be seen that innovative development and green development have become an obvious change in Shanxi. Like Zhang et al. (2019) said, this also fully proves that Shanxi has carried forward the spirit of right jade in recent years, in-depth implementation of the innovation-driven development strategy, and actively promoted the coal industry to take the road of “minimizing green” every year. The effect of planting more than 4 million mu of forest is very obvious.
In summary, although Shanxi’s high-quality development started late, it has been promoted strongly, showing the provincial characteristics of a lower overall level and a higher development trend, which means that it is still difficult and arduous to solve the problem of imbalanced development in Shanxi. We need to adhere to development as the top priority, continue to make overall plans to promote the five major developments, and in particular we must increase our strengths and make up for shortcomings, promote reform with reform, and transform with innovation to further enhance the “gold content”, “new content”, and “green content” of economic development. To achieve higher quality, more efficient, fairer and more sustainable development.