Back
 GEP  Vol.8 No.2 , February 2020
Diagnostics of Environmental Risks and Mapping of Surface Water Sensitivity Due to Metal Contamination from Artisanal Gold Mining in Côte d’Ivoire: Case of Angovia, Kokumbo, Hire and Agbaou
Abstract: The present study performed on the Angovia, Kokumbo, Hire and Agbaou sites consisted of mapping the environmental risks linked to artisanal gold mining activities in C?te d’Ivoire. An inventory was done by observing the different phases of gold extraction and identifying the risks associated with these phases. Using a Geographic Information System (GIS), the representation of the spatial distribution of the pollution risks has been realized from indicator descriptives of the environmental sensitivity (i.e. slope, proximity to the watercourse, soil cover) and the transfer indicator (i.e. rainfall). The analysis of this map showed low sensitivity of mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) measured in the waters of the Hire and Agbaou localities, while moderate sensitivity in Kokumbo surface waters and high sensitivity for those of Angovia locality were observed. Moreover, analysis of Hg, As, Cu and Zn content spatial distribution maps in surface waters revealed that Hg and As come mainly from the artisanal mining activities for most localities. Among these metallic trace elements observed, only the Hg content was above the WHO Limit Values, 1994 (>0.001 mg·L-1). The continuous spread of metallic trace elements in surface water can pose serious health problems for people living around artisanal gold mining sites, hence the need to put in place a protection plan against contamination.
Cite this paper: Sylvain, A. , Tiangoua, K. , Lassina, C. , Kamagate, M. and Lacina, C. (2020) Diagnostics of Environmental Risks and Mapping of Surface Water Sensitivity Due to Metal Contamination from Artisanal Gold Mining in Côte d’Ivoire: Case of Angovia, Kokumbo, Hire and Agbaou. Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection, 8, 47-64. doi: 10.4236/gep.2020.82004.
References

[1]   Andriamasinoro, F., & Angel, J. M. (2012). Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Burkina Faso: Suggestion of Multi-Agent Methodology as a Complementary Support in Elaborating a Policy. Resources Policy, 37, 385-396.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resourpol.2012.04.004

[2]   Antoni, J. P., Klein, O., & Moisy, S. (2012). Temporal Discretization. A Data Structuring Method for Dynamic Mapping (pp. 27-31). Paris: Maps & Geomatics, French Committee for Cartography. https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00736467

[3]   Atsé, A. R. M. (2007). Environmental Study of the Gold Bonikro Project in Cote d’Ivoire (8 p.). Data Sheet Moged, Quebec: Institute of Energy and the Environment of the Francophonie.

[4]   Bonnemaison, M. (2005). Water, a Release Factor for Natural Arsenic. Geosciences, 2, 54-59.

[5]   Brou, Y. (2005). Climate, Socio-Economic Changes and Landscapes in Côte d’Ivoire. Summary of Scientific Activities Presented with a View to Obtaining the Habilitation to Direct Research (212 p.). Lille: University of Sciences and Technologies of Lille.

[6]   Coulibaly, A. S., Monde, S., Wognin, V. A., & Aka, K. (2009). Analysis of Traces Metallic Elements (ETM) in the Estuarine Bays of Abidjan in Cote d’Ivoire. Afrique Science, 5, 77-96.

[7]   Coulibaly, Y., Boiron, M. C., Cathelineau, M., & Kouamelan, A. N. (2008). Fluid Immiscibility and Gold Deposition in the Birimian Quartz Veins of the Angovia Deposit (Yaoure, Ivory Coast). Journal of African Earth Sciences, 50, 234-254.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2007.09.014

[8]   Dabin, B., Leneuf, N., & Riou, G. (1960). Explanatory Note for the Soil Map of Côte d’Ivoire (39 p.). Adiopodoumé: State Secretariat for Agriculture.

[9]   Diallo, A., Wade, F., & Kourouma, S. (2007). Effects of Artisanal Gold Mining on Forest Resources in Siguiri (32 p.). Conakry: University of Conakry, Guinea, Higher Agronomic and Veterinary Institute Valéry Giscard d’Estaing.

[10]   Eisenlohr, B. (1998). Agbaou Gold Project, Geology and Mineralisation. 3-D Geological Services Pty Ltd., Goldivoire Internal Report.

[11]   El Garouani, A., Chen, H., Lewis, L., Triback, A., & Abahrour, M. (2008). Mapping of Land Use and Net Erosion from Satellite Images and IDRISI GIS in North-East Morocco. Remote Sensing, 8, 193-201.
http://www.teledetection.net/upload/Teledetection/pdf/Vol8No3 193 201.pdf

[12]   Elazhari. (2013). Study of the Contamination by Metallic Trace Elements of the Sediments of Oued Moulouya and the Reservoir of the Hassan II Dam Downstream from the Abandoned Zeïda Mine, Haute Moulouya (115 p.). Master Thesis, Marrakesh: Cadi Ayyad University.

[13]   Endeavour Mining Corporation (2015). Technical Report Mineral Resource and Reserve Update for the Agbaou Gold Mine Côte d’Ivoire, West Africa (129 p.).

[14]   Fabre, R., & Morel, B. (1993). Stratigraphy of the Birimian Units in the Center of the Ivory Coast (West Africa). Bulletin of the Geological Society of France, 164, 609-621.

[15]   Fabre, R., Ledru, P., & Milési, J. P. (1990). The Lower Proterozoic (Birimian) of the Center of the Ivory Coast, Tectonic Evolution and Correlations (pp. 971-976). Report of the Academy of Sciences, France, Series II 311.

[16]   Farr, T. G., & Kobrick, M. (2000). Shuttle Radar Topography Mission Produces a Wealth of Data. Eos Transactions American Geophysical Union, 81, 583-585.
https://doi.org/10.1029/EO081i048p00583

[17]   Feybesse, J. L. (2001). Geometry and Kinematics of the Fractures Controlling the Placement of the Quartz Veins and Veinlets at the Angovia Mine (Yaouré, Côte d’Ivoire). Report BRGM/RC-50934-FR, 27.

[18]   Goh, D. (2016). Artisanal Gold Mining in Côte d’Ivoire: The Persistence of Illegal Activity. European Scientific Journal, 12, 18-36.

[19]   Goula, B. T. A., Konan, B., Brou, Y. T., Savane, I., Fadika, V., & Srohourou, B. (2007). Estimation of Exceptional Daily Rains in Tropical Zones: Case of the Ivory Coast by Comparison of the Normal and Gumbel Log Laws. Hydrology Science Journal, 52, 49-67.
https://doi.org/10.1623/hysj.52.1.49

[20]   Hien, K. (2012). Realization of an Environmental Diagnostic to Improve the Environmental Performance of Gold Panning in Burkina Faso: The Case of the Kampti Site (83 p.). Master Thesis, Ouagadougou: Urban Environment, International Institute of Water and Environmental Engineering.

[21]   Ibrahim, O. Z., Tankaridan-Badjo, A., Guero, Y., Maissoro Malam Idi, F., Feidt, C., Sterckeman, T., & Echevarria, G. (2019). Spatial Distribution of Metallic Trace Elements in the Soils of the Komabangou Gold Zone in Niger. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Science, 13, 557-573.
https://doi.org/10.4314/ijbcs.v13i1.43

[22]   IFEN (2012). Impact of Agricultural Practices on Transfers of Phytosanitary Products in Waters (36 p.). 2007 Data, France.

[23]   Jacques, E., Orru, J. F., & Pelon, R. (2005). Sustainable Development: What Place for the Artisanal Mine. Geoscience, 1, 67-70.

[24]   Kaminska, I. A., Oldak, A., & Turski, W. A. (2004). Geographical Information System as a Tool for Monitoring and Analyzing Pesticide Pollution and Its Impact on Public Health. Annale Agriculture Environment Medicine, 11, 181-184.

[25]   Kéita, S. (2001). Study on Artisanal Mines and Small-Scale Mining in Mali (No. 80, 54 p.).

[26]   Koffi, D. (2015). Impact of Artisanal Gold Mining on Surface Water at Hiré (Côte d’Ivoire) (73 p.). Master Thesis, Abidjan: Nangui Abrogoua University.

[27]   Laperche, V., Bodénan, F., Dictor, M.-C., & Baranger, P. (2003). Methodological Guide to Arsenic Applied to the Management of Polluted Sites and Soils (91 p.). BRGM/RP-52066-FR.

[28]   Liu, G., Cai, Y., O’Driscoll, N., Feng, X., & Jiang, G. (2012). Overview of Mercury in the Environment. In G. Liu, Y. Cai, & N. O’Driscoll (Eds.), Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology of Mercury (Ch. 1, pp. 1-12). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Publication.
https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118146644.ch1

[29]   Macary, F., Balestrat, M., Puech, C., & Saudubray, F. (2007). Method for Estimating a Potential Spatialized Risk of Contamination of Surface Water by Agricultural Inputs on Different Spatial Scales: Application on the Slopes of Gascogne. In M. Batton-Hubert, T. Joliveau, & S. Lardon (Eds.), SAGEO, Geomatiqueinternationales Meeting et Territory (pp. 1-20).

[30]   Maradan, D., Ouedraogo, B., Thiombiano, N., Thiombiano, T., & Zein, K. (2011). Economic Analysis of the Mining Sector: Poverty and Environment Links, Sba-Ecosys-CEDRES (69 p.). Report of the Ministry of the Environment and the Living Environment (MECV).

[31]   ONUDI (2009). Information Sub-Region Workshop for French-Speaking West African Countries on the Problems Associated with Gold Panning (34 p.). Synthesis Report.

[32]   Ouedraogo, A. (2006). Impact of Artisanal Gold Mining (Gold Panning) on Health and the Environment. Management of Toxic Substances, West Africa Portal.
http://www.mediaterre.org/afriqueouest/actu,20061121095625.html

[33]   Perraud, A. (1979). Soil Sketch of the Ivory Coast on a 1/2,000,000 Scale. Adiopodoumé: Overseas Office for Scientific and Technical Research (ORSTOM), Center of Adiopodoumé, Côte d’Ivoire.

[34]   Predictive Discovery Limited (2014). Large Strong Gold Soil Anomaly in Côte d’Ivoire (23 p.).

[35]   Programme des Nations Unies pour l’Environnement (PNUE) (2012). Practical Guide: Reducing the Use of Mercury in the Gold Panning and Artisanal Mining Sector (76 p.).

[36]   Roamba, J. (2014). Environmental and Health Risks on Gold Panning Sites in Burkina Faso: Life Cycle of the Main Pollutants and Perceptions of Gold Panning (Case of the Zougnazagmligne Site in the Rural Commune of Bouroum, North-Central Region) (101 p.). Master Thesis in Water and Sanitation, Ouagadougou: International Institute of Water and Environment Engineering, Burkina Faso.

[37]   Sirven, J. B. (2006). Detection of Heavy Metals in Soils by Laser Induced Plasma Emission Spectroscopy (252 p.). PhD Thesis, Bordeaux: University Bordeaux 1.

[38]   Slater, J. A., Garvey, G., Johnston, C., Haase, J., Heady, B., Kroenung, G., & Little, J. (2006). The SRTM Data Finishing Process and Products. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 772, 237-248.
https://doi.org/10.14358/PERS.72.3.237

[39]   Soro, B. (2011). Agriculture and Raw Materials in Ivory Coast: Cocoa, Coffee, Cotton, Gold, Sugar in Free Fall/The International Financial Crisis Rages. Le Mandat.
http://www.koffi.net/koffi/rechercheMultiple/a/43/Withdraw

[40]   Soutter, M., Mermoud, A., & Musy, A. (2007). Water and Soil Engineering Processes and Facilities, Polytechnic Press and French-Speaking Academics (316 p.).

[41]   Tagini, B., Gobert, M., Berthoumieux, G., & Casanova, R. (1972). Geological Map of Ivory Coast. SODEMI. Ivory Coast.

[42]   Taylor, H., Appleton, J. D., Lister, R., Smith, B., Chitamweba, D., Mkumbo, O., Machiwa, J. F., Tesha, A. L., & Beinhoff, C. (2004). Environmental Assessment of Mercury Contamination from the Rwamagasa Artisanal Gold Mining Centre, Geita District, Tanzania. Science of the Total Environment, 343, 111-133.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2004.09.042

[43]   Telmer, K. H., & Veiga, M. M. (2009). World Emissions of Mercury from Artisanal and Small Scale Gold Mining. In N. Pirrone, & R. P. Mason (Eds.), Mercury Fate and Transport in the Global Atmosphere. Emissions, Measurements and Models (Ch. 6, pp. 131-172). New York: Springer Science + Business Media.
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-93958-2 6

[44]   Wandan, E., Koffi, G., Kouadio, K., & Gomba, D. (2015). Environmental Evaluation of Small-Scale Gold Mining in the Bounkani Region in the Upper East Area of Côte d’Ivoire. International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis, 3, 265-274.
https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijema.20150305.14

[45]   World Organisation Health (WHO) (1994). Quality Guidelines for Drinking Water, Second Edition, Volume 1, Recommendations. Drinking Water—Standards (216 p.).

[46]   Yapi, Y. H. A., Dongui, B. K., Trokourey, A., Barima, Y. S. S., Essis, Y., & Atheba, P. (2014). Assessment of Metallic Pollution of Groundwater and Surface Water in a Gold Mining Environment at Hiré (Côte d’Ivoire). International Journal of Biological Chemistry Science, 8, 1281-1289.
https://doi.org/10.4314/ijbcs.v8i3.41

 
 
Top