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 JAMP  Vol.7 No.12 , December 2019
Loschmidt’s Paradox, Extended to CPT Symmetry, Bypasses Second Law
Abstract: Loschmidt’s paradox is extended by replacing its assumption of time reversibility with full CPT symmetry. Mobility is identified as a means for expressing collisions or dissipation, and the cross product of its gradient with the magnetic field, for expressing parity. Three phenomena incorporating such cross products are identified. The first is the cross product of the mobility gradient with the magnetic field. The second combines this cross product with the E cross B drift. The third is the reciprocal of the Nernst effect expressed as a cross product of the temperature gradient and the magnetic field. Simulations are conducted for testing Loschmidt’s extended paradox. Onsager’s exclusion of magnetic fields and rotation from reciprocals violates CPT symmetry and is unjustified. All three cross-product phenomena skew statistics in a fashion unanticipated by Boltzmann’s assumptions in his H-Theorem. CPT symmetric systems fall outside the assumptions of the theorem which is not rendered invalid but simply limited to its domain of applicability. Therefore, these systems do not violate the second law as Boltzmann defines it. They bypass it.
Cite this paper: Levy, G. (2019) Loschmidt’s Paradox, Extended to CPT Symmetry, Bypasses Second Law. Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics, 7, 3140-3175. doi: 10.4236/jamp.2019.712221.
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