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 JBM  Vol.7 No.12 , December 2019
Genomic Analysis of 727 Patients with Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome I: Clinical Perspective Relates 23 Genes to a Maternally Influenced Arthritis-Adrenaline Disorder
Abstract: A novel medical approach for qualifying DNA variants found by whole exome sequencing (WES) facilitates discovery of new gene-disease relationships and emphasizes that DNA change must be correlated with clinical findings before having utility for diagnosis. Delineation of an arthritis-adrenaline disorder (AAD) process qualified variants in 23 genes as diagnostically useful in 727 patients having WES among 1656 with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS); these results distinguished them from 102 patients who had qualified gene variants among 728 with developmental disability. Excess maternal transmission of AAD by pedigree analysis plus 167 maternally versus 111 paternally transmitted DNA variants and 75 patients with only mitochondrial DNA variants suggest maternal influence on inheritance of AAD and its subsumed EDS types. Genes grouped by impact on different connective tissue elements showed variation in similar numbers of patients with hypermobile or classical EDS, benign joint hypermobility, or predominant dysautonomia: COL7A1, FLG acting on skin in 21 patients; SCN9A/10A/11A, POLG on nerve in 24; COL6A1/A2/A3, COL12 on muscle in 19; COL5A1/A2, FBN1, TGFB2/3, TGFBR1/2 on tissue matrix in 51; COL3A1, VWF on vessel in 18; COL1A1/A2, COL11A1/A2 acting on bone in 15 patients. Each gene group acts through a postulated articulo-autonomic dysplasia cycle to produce reciprocal tissue laxity and dysautonomia findings that transcend EDS types. This same tissue laxity-dysautonomia cycle acts to produce secondary complications in disorders ranging from distinctive connective tissue dysplasias to developmental disorders with hypotonia and acquired conditions with autonomic imbalance. Several altered genes were previously associated with neuromuscular disorders, foreshadowing a large myopathic EDS category that will incorporate many patients with hypermobility. The importance of muscle for joint constraint supports present exercise and future mesenchymal stem cell therapies, whether AAD is genetic or epigenetic from trauma, surgery, inflammation, or aging.
Cite this paper: Wilson, G. (2019) Genomic Analysis of 727 Patients with Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome I: Clinical Perspective Relates 23 Genes to a Maternally Influenced Arthritis-Adrenaline Disorder. Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, 7, 181-204. doi: 10.4236/jbm.2019.712015.
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