AJCC  Vol.8 No.4 , December 2019
Hudson Bay Climate Change and Local Winter Wind Circulation
Show more
Abstract: The meteorological mechanisms causing the recent increase in winter wind speed on Hudson Bay are investigated by examining the NARR dataset (The North American Regional Reanalysis Model) for the past several decades. Winter seasonal changes for atmospheric variables are examined and their interconnections are studied. Yearly mean near-surface temperatures are analyzed from 1948 to denote a rapid warming over Hudson Bay from late 1998 onwards. The surface albedo, air temperatures, mean sea level pressure and wind vector anomalies from 1998 to 2015 have also been studied. The comparison of the 1000 hPa wind vector mean and departures from 1981-2010 (normal period) averages have shown an intensification of anti-cyclonic anomaly pattern over most parts of Hudson Bay. The structure of the wind vector anomalies has revealed a contrast between cyclonic and anti-cyclonic local wind circulations mostly in the east, north and north-west regions along with wind speed increasing at 10 m, increases in near-surface air temperature and decreasing of the surface albedo. The anomalies of the wind vector analysing at different pressure levels show the change in wind direction mostly from northwesterly (zonal wind weakening) to south and easterlies. The polar jet wind vectors at 200 mb during anomaly time (1998-2015) have revealed the changes in magnitude and position. During winter anomaly time, the polar jet at 200 mb has been shifted mostly from rather mean colder north westerly currents to the rather warmer south and easterly anomaly currents over Hudson Bay areas. The yearly historical total accumulated Hudson Bay ice coverage during 1980-2015, using Canadian Ice Service data has shown a slight reduction in the north, north-west and eastern Hudson Bay. The linear regressions of the winter temperature anomaly at 2 m against albedo anomaly, alongside the wind speed anomaly at 10 m against air temperature at 2 m, have shown a relationship between these variables. Also, there is a statistically meaningful relation between decreased albedo and increased evaporation.
Cite this paper: Fazel-Rastgar, F. (2019) Hudson Bay Climate Change and Local Winter Wind Circulation. American Journal of Climate Change, 8, 544-560. doi: 10.4236/ajcc.2019.84029.

[1]   Hansen, J., Sato, M., Ruedy, R., Lo, K., Lea, D.W. and Medina-Elizade, M. (2006) Global Temperature Change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 103, 14288-14293.

[2]   Blunden, J. and Arndt, D.S. (2012) State of the Climate in 2011. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 93, S1-S264.

[3]   Döscher, R., Vihma, T. and Maksimovich, E. (2014) Recent Advances in Understanding the Arctic Climate System State and Change from a Sea Ice Perspective: A Review. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, 14, 10929-10999.

[4]   Polyakov, I.V., Alexeev, V.A., Belchansky, G.I., Dmitrenko, I.A., Ivanov, V.V., Kirillov, S.A., Yashayaev, I., et al. (2008) Arctic Ocean Freshwater Changes over the Past 100 Years and Their Causes. Journal of Climate, 21, 364-384.

[5]   Polyakov, I.V., Alexeev, V.A., Ashik, I.M., Bacon, S., Beszczynska-Möller, A., Carmack, E.C., Woodgate, R., et al. (2011) Fate of Early 2000s Arctic Warm Water Pulse. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 92, 561-566.

[6]   Bourgain, P. and Gascard, J.C. (2012) The Atlantic and Summer Pacific Waters Variability in the Arctic Ocean from 1997 to 2008. Geophysical Research Letters, 39.

[7]   Pirazzoli, P.A., Regnauld, H. and Lemasson, L. (2004) Changes in Storminess and Surges in Western France during the Last Century. Marine Geology, 210, S307-S323.

[8]   Pirazzoli, P. and Tomasin, A. (2003) Recent Near-Surface Wind Changes in the Central Mediterranean and Adriatic Areas. International Journal of Climatology, 23, 963-973.

[9]   Pirazzoli, P.A. and Tomasin, A. (1999) Recent Abatement of Easterly Winds in the northern Adriatic. International Journal of Climatology, 19, 1205-1219.<1205::AID-JOC405>3.3.CO;2-4

[10]   Garreaud, R.D. and Falvey, M. (2009) The Coastal Winds off Western Subtropical South America in Future Climate Scenarios. International Journal of Climatology, 29, 543-554.

[11]   Ogi, M. and Rigor, I.G. (2013) Trends in Arctic Sea Ice and the Role of Atmospheric Circulation. Atmospheric Science Letters, 14, 97-101.

[12]   Screen, J.A., Simmonds, I. and Keay, K. (2011) Dramatic Interannual Changes of perennial Arctic Sea Ice Linked to Abnormal Summer Storm Activity. Journal of Geophysical Research, 116.

[13]   Maxwell, J.B. (1986) A Climate Overview of the Canadian Inland Seas. In: Martini, I.P., Ed., Canadian Inland Seas, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 79-99.

[14]   Rouse, W.R. (1991) Impacts of Hudson Bay on the Terrestrial Climate of the Hudson Bay Lowlands. Arctic and Alpine Research, 23, 24.

[15]   Gough, W. and Leung, A. (2002) Nature and Fate of Hudson Bay Permafrost. Regional Environmental Change, 2, 177-184.

[16]   Markham, W. (1986) The Ice Cover. In: Martini, I.P., Ed., Canadian Inland Seas (Elsevier Oceanography Series), Elsevier, New York, 101-116.

[17]   Saucier, F.J. and Dionne, J. (1998) A 3-D Coupled Ice-Ocean Model Applied to Hudson Bay, Canada: The Seasonal Cycle and Time-Dependent Climate Response to Atmospheric Forcing and Runoff. Journal of Geophysical Research, 103, Article ID: 27689.

[18]   Wang, J., Mysak, L.A. and Ingram, R.G. (1994) Interannual Variability of Sea-Ice Cover in Hudson Bay, Baffin Bay and the Labrador Sea. Atmosphere-Ocean, 32, 421-447.

[19]   Mysak, L., Ingram, R., Wang, J. and Van der Baaren, A. (1996) The Anomalous Sea-Ice Extent in Hudson Bay, Baffin Bay and the Labrador Sea during Three Simultaneous NAO and ENSO Episodes. Atmosphere-Ocean, 34, 313-343.

[20]   Gough, W.A., Cornwell, A.R. and Tsuji, L. (2004) Trends in Seasonal Sea Ice Duration in Southwestern Hudson Bay. Arctic, 57, 299-305.

[21]   Etkin, D.A. (1991) Break-up in Hudson Bay: Its Sensitivity to Air Temperatures and Implications for Climate Warming. Climatological Bulletin, 25, 21-34.

[22]   Mesinger, F., DiMego, G., Kalnay, E., Mitchell, K., Shafran, P.C., Ebisuzaki, W., Shi, W., et al. (2006) North American Regional Reanalysis. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 87, 343-360.

[23]   Kalnay, E., Kanamitsu, M., Kistler, R., Collins, W., Deaven, D., Gandin, L., Joseph, D., et al. (1996) The NCEP/NCAR 40-Year Reanalysis Project. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 77, 437-471.<0437:TNYRP>2.0.CO;2

[24]   Fazel-Rastgar, F. (In Press) The Evidence of Recent Canadian Arctic Climate Change: A Case Study, the Baffin Island. International Journal of Global Warming.

[25]   Cohen, J., Screen, J.A., Furtado, J.C., Barlow, M., Whittleston, D., Coumou, D., Jones, J., et al. (2014) Recent Arctic Amplification and Extreme Mid-Latitude Weather. Nature Geoscience, 7, 627-637.

[26]   Walsh, J.E. (2014) Intensified Warming of the Arctic: Causes and Impacts on Middle Latitudes. Global and Planetary Change, 117, 52-63.

[27]   Francis, J.A. and Vavrus, S.J. (2015) Evidence for a Wavier Jet Stream in Response to Rapid Arctic Warming. Environmental Research Letters, 10, Article ID: 014005.