JSS  Vol.7 No.11 , November 2019
Analysis of the Construction and Implementation of the New Mode of School-Enterprise Cooperation in Higher Vocational Colleges from the Perspective of Educational Reform
Author(s) Can Li, Guifu Li, Ying Shi
ABSTRACT
In January 2019, the State Council of the People’s Republic of China issued the implementation plan of national vocational education reform, which clearly stated that “guided by promoting employment and adapting to the needs of industrial development, China’s vocational education should be transformed into a type of education with social participation of enterprises and distinct professional characteristics”. This paper takes the image file technology major of Shanghai Publishing and Printing College as an example to analyze the construction of the major in order to adapt to the social and economic development as the guide, to the integration of industry and education as the guarantee, and to explore the construction and path of the new mode of school enterprise cooperation under the background of education reform.

1. The Development of Industry Education Integration under the Background of Vocational Education Reform

On January 24, 2019, the State Council of the People’s Republic of China issued the implementation plan of national vocational education reform, which clearly stated that vocational education and general education are two different types of education with equal importance. The reform of vocational education calls for the promotion of employment and the adaptation to the needs of industrial development, the encouragement and support of all sectors of society, especially enterprises, to actively support vocational education, and the cultivation of high-quality workers and skilled personnel. It focuses on “to promote employment and meet the needs of industrial development as the guide, to China’s vocational education to enterprise social participation, and professional characteristics distinct type of education”.

According to the trend of Shanghai in the development of Vocational Education in recent years, we can find that the status of vocational education has changed fundamentally. In the early stage of the development of vocational education, he was regarded as a kind of education level lower than general education. The important reason is that vocational education only developed to junior college level at the level of school system, and there is a huge defect in the lack of vocational education at undergraduate level and above. In recent years, guided by the comprehensive reform of education, Shanghai Vocational Education resolutely implements the important national strategic deployment, and has experienced the development stages of vigorously developing vocational education and accelerating the construction of modern vocational education system. Vocational education is no longer an integral part of general education, but an equally important type of education. At the same time, the mode of vocational education will also change fundamentally. The main body of running a school needs the participation of national educational institutions and social enterprises. The setting and adjustment of specialties must be guided by promoting employment and adapting to the needs of industrial development, and determined closely around economic and social development. It is pointed out in the document that “to adapt to the economic and social development to set up a major, the state and social enterprises to participate in” this will be the future development of higher vocational education in China’s main school-running mode.

In the context of vocational education reform, the core of the integration of industry and education is to integrate the advanced industrial technology, excellent industrial culture and clear industrial development needs into the education and teaching resources and the education and teaching process, so as to promote the development of professional teaching docking industry. “National vocational education reform implementation plan” also clearly points out that “schools and enterprises work together to develop talent training programs, timely incorporate new technology, new technology, new norms into teaching standards and teaching content, and strengthen practical training of students”. In the previous 3 years of industry research, the school has made a quantitative analysis of the image archival industry and the special regional economic development situation in Shanghai, and concluded that under the background of Internet plus, the image archival industry mainly has the following characteristics: first, massive data resources. How many TV stations and new media are there on the Internet? They produce a lot of image data every day. How many cities are developing and how many memories need to be kept, and how much image data will be produced. How much work is needed to catalog and organize these materials to form image files; secondly, reading needs to use equipment. Traditional paper files can be read without other equipment, but image files can’t, its characteristics must be read with special equipment, which makes reading very inconvenient, how to make more convenient use, through advanced technical means to find the required content comprehensively, accurately and quickly from the vast database, and how many technical means are needed to provide support. We need to break through the bottleneck. The third is to sort out the cataloguing, rescue and protection, compilation, research and utilization, etc., and the problem of standard has not yet been broken through. The rescue and protection technology is totally different from the traditional paper-based file rescue methods, in which all kinds of requirements need to form the corresponding norms and standards according to the specific practice; fourthly, there is a serious shortage of professional and technical personnel in the industry image file. According to the situation of Shanghai urban comprehensive archives, there are less than 10 technical personnel engaged in professional image archives management, less than 100 in China, and the same lack of such talents as enterprise archives and special archives. The next 5 to 10 years will be an important period of strategic opportunity for the protection and development of the cultural heritage of image archives. Under the impetus of the new technological revolution and the recognition of the value of cultural heritage, multidisciplinary crossing, new media and “Internet+” will develop rapidly. The demand for application-oriented and compound talents combining theory with practice will continue to expand. The trend of shortage of talents in the market, which radiates from Shanghai to the whole country, will continue to expand. The image file industry can reflect the characteristics of digitization of cultural products and network of information files, and it is one of the characteristic industries for the development of media integration. In the 13th five year plan for cultural reform and development in Shanghai, it is proposed to promote the cultural industry as a pillar industry. By 2020, the added value of cultural and creative industries in Shanghai will account for more than 13% of GDP. Image files collected, processed, produced and created are a type of cultural and creative industry with huge development space and promotion potential. It is expected to form a market scale of billions or even hundreds of billions in the future. Therefore, based on the needs of market prospect and social development, our school reached an order cultivation agreement with Shanghai Yulong Guangbi Culture Investment Co., Ltd., the founding enterprise of the video file industry. Under the deep integration of industry and education, the curriculum architecture of “school-enterprise combination, task-driven and project-led” was jointly studied and implemented.

2. Docking Industry Standards and Joint Development of Training Programs

The integration of production and education is first reflected in the formulation of professional training programs. My professional and school-enterprise cooperation units, the two sides jointly develop training programs, in-depth cooperation in the teaching staff, teaching venues, practical teaching conditions.

First of all, the school and the enterprise have repeatedly studied and determined the professional training target as: the image archive technology is based on the professional characteristics of “emphasizing professional skills training, emphasizing practical and innovative ability, paying attention to the professional quality training of image archive technology”. It is mainly devoted to the cultivation of high-quality technical talents who are engaged in the production, storage, inquiry and maintenance of professional knowledge and skills of image file, as well as those who are engaged in the script writing and on-site shooting of image files in the early stage, material management in the middle stage, film editing and digitization and protection of image files in the later stage.

In order to achieve these training objectives, both schools and enterprises refer to the professional standards of “China’s government and enterprise image archives image capture standards and norms” and “the implementation standards of major engineering image archives”, fully absorb the advanced culture and advanced technology of enterprises, and determine the core of the profession. The course is for video archives photography practice, oral history practice, video file protection foundation, feature film creation, and video file production management and combined with business operations and school teaching arrangements. It is determined that the main practice links are vocational training for the first grade; vocational skills training for the second grade; and comprehensive graduation practice for the third grade and determined that the cooperative enterprise Shanghai Yulong Guangbi Culture Investment Co., Ltd. is the teaching practice base, and arranges students’ summer practice and post-training internship.

3. Rooted in Enterprise Culture and Improve the Concept of Running School

In the specific process of the deep integration of industry and education, the integration of ideas and culture leads the integration of industry and education, which must attract the attention of both schools and enterprises [1]. At the very beginning of the establishment, the major of video archive technology has fully discussed with the enterprise side and made many investigations and consultations. Based on the conventional training program, the major has jointly formulated 32 hours of professional development technology lectures for enterprise experts every academic year, which is rooted in the enterprise culture and integrates the technical education and vocational education that students are interested in into the education and teaching.

Deep cooperation between schools and enterprises is often accompanied by the exchange of interests of both sides. Enterprises need to cultivate reserve teams and incubate projects. And the school needs the accurate connection between the market and the industry. No single demand from either side can achieve deep integration. In particular, higher requirements are put forward for colleges and universities to perfect their school-running philosophy and respect each other’s corporate culture. For example, the video recording technology industry mainly serves the government and listed enterprises, and attaches great importance to the political literacy of employees in the corporate culture. Therefore, the video recording technology order class of our school is led by the professional head teacher, and holds a series of themed class meetings on ideological and political education, party history and national history as well as the characteristics of the new era. Combined with the adjustment of curriculum outline, the course emphasizes the establishment of “craftsman of big country” and “cultivating people with virtue” in the image file technology class, and strives to build the image file technology into a major with “sense of responsibility, virtue and patriotism”.

4. Step by Step Project to Create Enterprise Situation

Under the background of teaching reform, the integration of production and teaching focuses on the implementation and guarantee of real exercises, which are embodied in teaching content, teacher training, student practice and teaching arrangement. The school enterprise cooperation of image archive technology is for all the students who accept the order completely, which will bring employment pressure to the enterprise, which is not in line with the principle of mutual benefit and trust. So what kind of students to receive and what proportion of counterpart work has become the constant exploration module in the practice of school enterprise cooperation.

In the past, we have always adopted the “2 + 1” talent training mode, which is based on the progressive time, including two years of theoretical study in school and one year of internship in enterprises. In the process of curriculum teaching, teachers try their best to impart knowledge and introduce projects in line with the situation of most students’ knowledge and skills learning, but inevitably some students are “not enough to eat” and some students are “difficult to digest”. At the same time, it can not form a good counterpart training for the work subdivision of the enterprise in the project, which on the one hand limits the personalized development of some students, on the other hand, it has a gap with the industrial image production process of the enterprise. In order to guide students to choose different levels or categories of knowledge and skills according to their own interests and abilities, so as to meet the needs of students’ personalized development, we have changed the traditional “time progressive” segmented talent training mode, relying on the project practice independent learning platform in the video archive Technology Project Studio, and gradually established the “ability-based, counterpart oriented” talent training Pattern. This mode is based on students’ own technical ability. After meeting the corresponding standards and requirements of the industry, students can freely choose to enter different levels of training rooms to learn practical projects. Students are selected to the studio after basic training. In the project practice of the studio, the salary system is implemented and distributed according to work. By “enterprise system”, “enterprise situation”, “enterprise training” and “enterprise incentive” to cultivate and standardize the professional quality of students, so that students can cross the school gate in the shortest time to meet the requirements of the enterprise post [2].

5. Mixed Skill Evaluation to Form “Three-Dimensional” Standard Mutual Recognition

In the past few years of exploring the mode of school enterprise cooperation, from the internal point of view, the mechanism system of school enterprise cooperation has been constantly adjusted at the beginning, which is an effective system for both the school running idea and the win-win channel. Especially for teaching, production and industry standards, mutual recognition mechanism has not been formed. In recent years, with the deepening of school enterprise cooperation, a hybrid skill evaluation system has been gradually established, forming a “five dimensional integration” model of in class evaluation, after class evaluation, enterprise evaluation, industry evaluation and social evaluation, and an evaluation system combining process evaluation and summary evaluation. At the same time, it also ensures the diversity of skill evaluation dimensions—the comprehensive application of curriculum standards, enterprise standards and industry standards; the concrete content of evaluation—the quantification of learning attitude, work quality and research results; the three-dimensional subject of evaluation—the joint participation of schools, enterprises and industries; the practical results of evaluation—the mutual recognition of teaching, production and employment. So as to improve the skill evaluation mechanism of multi participation, and comprehensively evaluate the professional ethics, technical skill level, employment quality, integration of industry and education, and the level of school enterprise cooperation of learners.

At present, the image file technology specialty has evaluated the teaching situation of on-the-job practice. There are 172 evaluation subjects in the sample to participate in the evaluation. The use of the industry evaluation platform has achieved the expected effect. The real-time data collection results provide effective information for the teaching quality monitoring and teaching management of the college. At the same time, it is because of the effective interaction and the construction of the network matrix that the enthusiasm of enterprises is activated. The right students have opened up a better situation in the acceptance and continuous cultivation.

6. Achieve Cooperative Development and Joint Development of Cultural Brands

Cooperative development refers to that both the school and the enterprise give full play to their respective resources and technological advantages, the enterprise supports the development of the college through capital, technology, part-time teachers, equipment donation and horizontal scientific research and technological transformation projects, the school provides technical services, human resources and scientific and technological services for the enterprise and trains employees for the enterprise, so as to realize the transformation of the new technology and new standards of the enterprise into the teaching process, and the scientific research achievements of the school to transform into the production process of the enterprise and realize mutual benefit, win-win results and common development [3].

As a new subject, image archive technology has formed 12 teaching self compiled materials with cooperative school enterprise cooperative units. In combination with practical application, the company has compiled such enterprise professional standards as image shooting standards and specifications of China’s government and enterprise image archive, implementation standards of major project image archive, and planned and compiled such teaching materials as image archive technology foundation and image archive production to timely absorb and promote the popularization and application of new image archive technologies and theories in the industry.

In the aspect of social service, both the school and the enterprise have created the brand of colleges and universities with the theme of “image file innovation and entrepreneurship”. There are more than 10 records of students’ participation in key projects in Shanghai, which show their professional skills and quality. For example, Shanghai Bin Jiang east bank 22 km penetration project, Shanghai artificial intelligence knowledge competition project, urban law enforcement system public supervision project and other video recording, editing and database construction, have been recognized by Shanghai municipal government, Shanghai planning bureau and other departments. In the process of serving the society, we will gradually establish our own image culture brand, and further realize the comprehensive goals of more service systems, such as the practice of students’ on-the-job, the practice of students’ skills, and the incubation and cultivation of film and television industry teams.

7. Conclusion

Many vocational colleges are actively responding to the reform of vocational education, but the deep integration of industry and education is not an overnight thing. In the process of deepening school enterprise cooperation for many years, we have explored a suitable mode and path for the development of image file technology: in the cooperation between school and enterprise, it is necessary to conform to the professional settings suitable for economic development; to conform to the technical training of industry development trend; to root in the culture of enterprises, to constantly improve the concept of running schools; to set up a ladder of training methods to conform to the industry of enterprises. It is necessary to form mutual recognition of teaching, production and industry standards, and finally complete social services so as to establish the effect of cultural brand. Our school’s image file technology specialty promotes the deep integration and innovation of industry and education through the path mode of combination, improvement, counterpart, evaluation and development in school enterprise cooperation.

Acknowledgements

Supported by 2019 project of Higher Education Research Institute of SPPC “Exploration and Practice of Innovation in Teaching Content of Radio and Television Major in the era of Media Integration”; 2019 project of Higher Education Research Institute of SPPC “Research on the implementation Strategy of the Deep School Enterprise Integration System in Higher Vocational Colleges”; Shanghai Association of Higher Education (Item Number: GJEL1894); Media Integration Development Research Center and Media Creation Studio of Shanghai SPPC.

Cite this paper
Li, C. , Li, G. and Shi, Y. (2019) Analysis of the Construction and Implementation of the New Mode of School-Enterprise Cooperation in Higher Vocational Colleges from the Perspective of Educational Reform. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 7, 246-253. doi: 10.4236/jss.2019.711017.
References
[1]   Wang, C. (2018) Innovation and Practice of Deep Integration of Production and Teaching in Higher Vocational Colleges. Science and Technology in Chinese Universities, 7, 60-61.

[2]   Gu, H. (2017) Deep Integration of Industry and Education: Theoretical Dependence, Mechanism Connotation and Implementation Pathfinding. China Vocational and Technical Education, 5, 8-11.

[3]   Xie, M. (2018) Research and Evaluation Practice of School-Enterprise Integration in Higher Vocational Colleges from the Perspective of Industry-Education Integration. Teaching Management, 33, 43.

 
 
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