AJPS  Vol.10 No.11 , November 2019
Genetic Diversity among Geographically Separated Cyperus rotundus Accessions Based on RAPD Markers and Morphological Characteristics
Abstract: The diversity of globally distributed populations of purple nutsedge was assessed using molecular marker data and morphological traits. Cluster analysis of binary random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) data and morphological traits indicated that the global population of purple nutsedge consisted of two clades. Cluster analysis of the RAPD data supported separation of the purple nutsedge accessions evaluated into two distinct clades of 11 and 33 accessions. Except for accessions identified as California* and Arizona, all USA accessions were clustered with accessions from Taiwan, Western Samoa, New Zealand, Malaysia, Japan, El Salvador, Columbia, Australia, Thailand and West Indies. A second cluster included accessions from Sudan, Greece, Iran, California*, Arizona, Brazil, Argentina, Mauritius, Philippines, Indonesia and Tanzania. The accessions from Sudan, Greece, Iran, Mauritius, and Tanzania were distributed along a similar longitudinal axis. Cluster analysis based on morphological traits though not identical to that based on RAPD data also supported separation into two clades and perhaps a third. The lack of genetic diversity among accessions supported the hypothesis that spread and propagation into new environments were largely by tubers which preserved genetic identity. The lack of diversity particularly among New World and USA accessions may also reflect a relatively recent introduction of the species into the Americas and a low level of outcrossing.
Cite this paper: Molin, W. , Kronfol, R. , Ray, J. , Scheffler, B. and Bryson, C. (2019) Genetic Diversity among Geographically Separated Cyperus rotundus Accessions Based on RAPD Markers and Morphological Characteristics. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 10, 2034-2046. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2019.1011143.

[1]   Holm, L.G., Plucknett, D.L., Pancho, J.V. and Herberger, J.P. (1977) The World’s Worst Weeds: Distribution, and Biology. University Press of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI.

[2]   Holm, L., Pancho, J.V., Herberger, J.P. and Plucknett, D.L. (1979) A Geographical Atlas of World Weeds. John Wiley and Sons, New York.

[3]   Negbi, M. (1992) A Sweetmeat Plant, a Perfume Plant and Their Weedy Relatives: A Chapter in the History of Cyperus esculentus L. and C. rotundus L. Economic Botany, 46, 64-71.

[4]   Buckley, S., Usai. D., Jakob, T., Radini, A. and Hardy, K. (2014) Dental Calculus Reveals Unique Insights into Food Items, Cooking and Plant Processing in Prehistoric Central Sudan. PLoS ONE, 9, e100808.

[5]   Kükenthal, G. (1935-1936) Cyperaceae-Scirpoideae-Cypereae. In: Engler, A. and Englemann, W., Eds., Das Pflanzenre, Leipzig, 1-671.

[6]   Bryson, C.T. and Carter, R. (2008) The Significance of Cyperaceae as Weeds, In: Naczi, R.F.C. and Ford, B.A., Eds., Sedges: Uses, Diversity, and Systematics of the Cyperaceae, Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden, St Louis, MO, 15-101.

[7]   Bendixen, L.E. and Nandihalli, U.B. (1987) Worldwide Distribution of Purple and Yellow Nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus and C. esculentus). Weed Technology, 1, 61-65.

[8]   Thullen, R.J. and Keeley, P.E. (1979) Seed Production and Germination in Cyperus esculentus and C. rotundus. Weed Science, 27, 502-505.

[9]   Neeser, C., Aguero, R. and Swanton C.J. (1997) Survival and Dormancy of Purple Nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) Tubers. Weed Science, 45, 784-790.

[10]   Ranade, S.B. and Burns, W. (1925) The Eradication of Cyperus rotundus L. Memoirs of the Department of Agriculture in India. Botany Series, 13, 99-192.

[11]   Tropicos (2019) Missouri Botanical Garden. Saint Louis.

[12]   Wills, G.D. (1998) Comparison of Purple Nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) from around the World. Weed Technology, 12, 491-503.

[13]   Schippers, P., Ter Borg, S. and Bos, J.J. (1995) A Revision of the Infraspecific Taxonomy of Cyperus esculentus (Yellow Nutsedge) with an Experimentally Evaluated Character Set. Systematic Botany, 20, 461-481.

[14]   Okoli, C.A.N., Shilling, D.G., Smith, R.L. and Bewick, T.A. (1997) Genetic Diversity in Purple Nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L.) and Yellow Nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L.). Biological Control, 8, 111-118.

[15]   Pereira, W., Tessmann, D.J. and Charudattan, R. (2000) Analysis of Genetic Variation in Cyperus rotundus Accessions Using Molecular Markers. Third International Weed Science Conference, Foz do Iguassu, Brazil, 47.

[16]   Komai, K., Tang, C.-S. and Nishimoto, R.K. (1991) Chemotypes of Cyperus rotundus in Pacific Rim and Basin: Distribution and Inhibitory Activities of Essential Oils. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 17, 1-8.

[17]   Da Silva, C.A.R., Mori, E.S., Velini, E.D. and Martins, D. (2000) Identification of Purple Nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L.) by Isoenzymes. Third International Weed Science Conference, Foz do Iguassu, Brazil, 47-48.

[18]   Tayyar, R.I., Nguyen, J.H.T. and Holt, J.S. (2003) Genetic and Morphological Analysis of Two Novel Nutsedge Biotypes from California. Weed Science, 51, 731-739.

[19]   Arias, R.S., Molin, W.T., Ray, J.D., Peels, M.D. and Scheffler, B.E. (2011) Isolation and Characterization of the First Microsatellite Markers for Cyperus rotundus. Weed Research, 51, 451-460.

[20]   SERNEC Data Portal (2019)

[21]   Doyle, J.J and Doyle, J.L. (1987) A rapid DNA Isolation Procedure for Small Quantities of Fresh Leaf Tissue. Phytochemical Bulletin, 19, 11-15.

[22]   (2012) Data Analysis for This Paper Was Generated Using SAS Software. SAS Institute Inc., SAS Campus Drive, Cary, NC.

[23]   Elliot, S. (1821) A Sketch of the Botany of South Carolina and Georgia. J.R. Scheneck, Charleston.

[24]   The New York Botanical Garden Virtual Herbarium

[25]   Consortium of California Herbaria

[26]   Flora of Texas Database

[27]   Smithsonian, National Museum of Natural History

[28]   Horowitz, M. (1972) Growth, Tuber Formation and Spread of Cyperus rotundus L. from Single Tubers. Weed Research, 12, 348-363.