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 AM  Vol.10 No.11 , November 2019
An Energy Balance Simulation of the Universe
Abstract: We have developed an energy balance equation for the universe. The two system parameters involved in the equation could be “fine-tuned” so that the predicted temperature histories all lead to what is observed in the present cosmic microwave background. We have shown that various combinations of these two parameters are possible; in particular, the present background temperature needs not be the remnant of a very hot temperature in the far distance past. We also solved for the propagation of vortex solitons in optical fibres as contrasting examples to show how electromagnetic wave could be transmitted in a particular waveform under strictly controlled conditions. To avoid singularity, all vortexes have a black centre. We conclude that while numerical techniques can be used to account for an infinite quantity, it is unlikely that such a quantity could exist in reality.
Cite this paper: Chen​, P. (2019) An Energy Balance Simulation of the Universe. Applied Mathematics, 10, 956-966. doi: 10.4236/am.2019.1011067.
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