CUS  Vol.7 No.4 , December 2019
Agricultural Productive Public Space: “An Alternative for Increasing Ecological Services, Social Development and Urban Sustainability”
Abstract: The problems affecting major cities are expected to increase under the pressure exerted by climate change, population growth and the incremental nature of urban consumption. Therefore, it becomes necessary to increase urban sustainability and resilience in a way that improves the urban landscape and the lives of urban communities in the aspects of economic income, food vulnerability and the limited access to environmental justice. This study lays the ground basis for the consolidation of a new typology public space through urban agriculture on its different modes (geoponics, aquaponics, geoponics and hydroponics) and derived activities that address the needs of urban centers as it harbors environmental and urban improvement in a profitable way for the stakeholders involved in continuous productive urban landscape. Through a multi-cluster quantitative, and design research, this paper collects the different modes, urban agriculture can be employed in cities and describes a methodology for establishing an agricultural productive public space within the participation of communities, and how it can widen the spectrum of public participation based on a followed-up case study with a community located in the Huangpu district, adjacent to commercial and tourist activities in Shanghai, China. The results of this research represent a methodological approximation for the formalization of the local spatial development with a focus on the participatory approach, for the sake of increasing urban sustainability along with the socioeconomic needs of neighboring communities. The results also evidence the state of consciousness that architecture graduate and postgraduate students have about environmental limits and their conception for the creation of urban value in terms of sustainability.
Cite this paper: Carreno, I. and Ma, W. (2019) Agricultural Productive Public Space: “An Alternative for Increasing Ecological Services, Social Development and Urban Sustainability”. Current Urban Studies, 7, 493-516. doi: 10.4236/cus.2019.74025.

[1]   Abdolreza, A. (2011). World Food Prices Reach New Historic Peak.

[2]   Akemine, T. (1999). Alternative Urban Development and Farming: The Role of Urban Agriculture in Japan. Gate: Technology and Development, No. 2, 21-24.

[3]   Almansuri, A., Curwell, S., & Dowdle, D. (2009). Urban Sustainability through Public Architecture.

[4]   Auge, M. (1992). Non-Places: An Introduction to Anthropology of Supermodernity (p. 79). Paris: Le Seuil.

[5]   Ayman, F., Weaam, Z., & Khaled, D. (2013). The Art of Sustainability: The Dialectic Relation between Sustainable Performance and Performance of Sustainability. In International Conference on Sustainable Development in Building and Environment (pp. 1-3). Chongqing, 25-28 October 2013.

[6]   Balamou, E., Efstathiadou, T., Maimaris, A., Papageorgiou, G., & Xergia, S. (2018). Examining Ways to Enhance Active Transportation and the Impact on Commuters’ Health, Wellbeing and Sustainable Development. PeerJ Preprints, 6, e26690v1.

[7]   Besthorn, F. (2012). Vertical Farming Social Work and Sustainable Urban Agriculture in an Age of Global Food Crises. Australian Social Work, 66, 187-203.

[8]   Brown, K., & Jameton, A. (2000). Public Health Implications of Urban Agriculture. Journal of Public Health Policy, 21, 22.

[9]   Budds, D. (2018). Rem Koolhaas: Architecture Has a Serious Problem Today.

[10]   Calderon, C. (2012). Social Urbanism—Participatory Urban Upgrading in Medellin, Colombia. In R. Lawrence, H. Turgut, & P. Kellett (Eds.), Requalifying the Built Environment: Challenges and Responses (p. 10). Göttingen: Hogrefe Publishing.

[11]   Choi, H. (2016). How Are Public Spaces Sustaining Cultural Identities in the Context of China’s Increasingly Globally Focused Urban Developments: Using a Case Study of Putuo in Shanghai. Journal of Architecture and Urbanism, 40, 198-205.

[12]   Delang, C. (2017). Causes and Distribution of Soil Pollution in China. Environmental & Socio-Economic Studies, 5, 1-17.

[13]   Despommier, D. (2010). The Vertical Farm. Feeding the World in the XXI Century (p. 159). New York: Picado Press.

[14]   Fadiman, M. (2016). Environmental Justice and the Lawn: Urban Parks in Shanghai, China. Florida Geographer, 47, 1-21.

[15]   Gallagher, M. (2018). USDA Defines Food Deserts.

[16]   Gaubatz, P. (2008). New Public Space in Urban China: Fewer Walls, More Malls in Beijing, Shanghai and Xining. China Perspectives, 4, 72-83.

[17]   Hagan, S. (2014). Ecological Urbanism: The Nature of the City (p. 31). Abingdon-on-Thames: Routledge.

[18]   Harvey, D. (2008). The Right to the City. New Left Review, 53, 9.

[19]   Herrmann, M. (2015). The Modern Day Victory Garden. Procedia Engineering, 118, 647-653.

[20]   Huang, P. (1993). Public Sphere and “Civil Society” in China? The Third Realm between State and Society. Modern China, 19, 216-240.

[21]   Imparato, I., & Ruster, J. (2003). Slum Upgrading and Participation: Lessons from Latin America. Washington DC: World Bank.

[22]   Janik, J. (2002). Ancient Egyptian Agriculture and the Origins of Horticulture. Acta Horticulturae, 582, 1.

[23]   Kim, B., Poulsen, M., Margulies, J., Dix, K., Palmer, A., & Nachman, K. (2014). Urban Community Gardeners’ Knowledge and Perceptions of Soil Contamination Risks. PLoS ONE, 9, e87913.

[24]   Kim, S., & Kwon, H. (2018). Urban Sustainability through Public Architecture. Sustainability, 10, 1249.

[25]   Lancione, M. (2013). Introduction: Telescopic Urbanism and the Urban Poor: Symposium. City: Analysis of Urban Trends, Culture, Theory, Policy, Action, 17, 474-475.

[26]   Li, J., Wang, Y., & Song, Y. (2008). Landscape Corridors in Shanghai and Their Importance in Urban Forest Planning. In M. M. Carreiro, Y. C. Song, & J. Wu (Eds.), Ecology, Planning, and Management of Urban Forests (p. 21). New York: Springer.

[27]   Mc Clintock, N. (2010). Why Farm the City? Theorizing Urban Agriculture through a Lens of Metabolic Rift. Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 3, 191-207.

[28]   McLennan, J. (2004). The Philosophy of Sustainable Design: The Future of Architecture (p. 4). Kansas: Ecotone Publishing Company.

[29]   Michael, C. (2017). 9 Reasons Why Vertical Farms Fail. Laramie, WY: Upstart University.

[30]   Nasr, J., Ratta, A., & Smit, J. (2001). Benefits of Urban Agriculture. In Urban Agriculture Food, Jobs and Sustainable Cities (p. 11). New York, NY: United Nations Development Programme.

[31]   Ozak, A. (2015). Envisioning a Sustainable City: The Practice and Paradigm of Urban Farming in Shanghai. Master Dissertation, Shanghai: Tongji University.

[32]   Parikh, J., Parikh, K., Sunir, G., Painuly, J., Saha, B., & Shukla, V. (1991). Consumption Patterns: The Driving Force of Environmental Stress (pp. 1-3). Bombay: Indura Ghandi Institute of Development Research.

[33]   Pawlyn, M. (2016). Biomimicry in Architecture (2nd ed., p. 129). Newcastle: RIBA Publishing.

[34]   Perez, V. M. (2014). Study of the Sustainability Issue of Food Production Using Vertical Farm Methods in an Urban Environment within the State of Indiana. Master’s Thesis, West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University.

[35]   Phillips, J. (2006). The Willows Are Bending (p. 94). New York: Vantage Press.

[36]   Plasencia, M. (2019). Toshiko Mori: La arquitectura debe ser sostenible o terminará destruyendo el planeta.

[37]   Poe, M., Lecompte, J., Mclain, R., & Hurley, P. (2014). Urban Foraging and the Relational Ecologies of Belonging. Social & Cultural Geography, 15, 901-919.

[38]   Pollack, R., Wood, S., & Smith, K. (2010). An Analysis of Fossil-Fuel Dependence in the United States with Implications for Community Social Work. Critical Social Work, 11, 140-154.

[39]   Porter, N. (2011). When Grass Isn’t Greener: Alternatives to the Perfect Lawn, at Home and at Harvard.

[40]   Robinson, J. (2006). Institution and Home: Architecture as a Cultural Medium (p. 11). PhD Thesis, Delft: Delft University of Technology.

[41]   Rowe, C., & Koetter, F. (1978). Collage City (p. 136). Cambridge, MA and London: MIT Press.

[42]   Ruan, Y., Zhang, C., &. Zhang, J. (2014). Shanghai Shikumen (pp. 32-33). Shanghai: Shanghai People’s Fine Arts Publishing House.

[43]   Schumacher, P. (2010). The Autopoiesis of Architecture, Volume I: A New Framework for Architecture (p. 380). London: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

[44]   Sennett, R. (1977). The Fall of Public Man (p. 10, 20, 23). New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

[45]   Shen, Y., Sun, F., & Che, Y. (2017). Public Green Spaces and Human Wellbeing: Mapping the Spatial Inequity and Mismatching Status of Public Green Space in the Central City of Shanghai. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 27, 59-68.

[46]   Siegner, A., Sowerwine, J., & Acey, C. (2018). Does Urban Agriculture Improve Food Security? Examining the Nexus of Food Access and Distribution of Urban Produced Foods in the United States: A Systematic Review. Sustainability, 10, 2988.

[47]   Tartaglia, S., & Rossi, M. (2015). The Local Identity Functions in the Age of Globalization: A Study on a Local Culture. Community Psychology in Global Perspective CPGP, 1, 105-121.

[48]   Tasgal, P. (2016). The Economics of Local Vertical and Greenhouse Farming Are Getting Competitive.

[49]   UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA) (2010). World Urbanization Prospects: The 2009 Revision, Executive Summary. New York: United Nations.

[50]   United States Environmental Protection Agency (2011). Reusing Potentially Contaminated Landscapes: Growing Garden in Urban Soils.

[51]   World Bank (2012). Food Prices, Nutrition, and the Millennium Development Goals, Poverty and Food Price Developments (p. 29). Global Monitoring Report.