JBM  Vol.7 No.9 , September 2019
Peroxidase Inhibition and Antioxidant Activity of Bulk-Marketed Black Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) from the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Abstract: The widely known leaves of Camellia sinensis (L.) derive the most consumed beverage globally. All over the world, like in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DR Congo), they are marketed in the form of packaged and in bulk black tea. The aim of this study was to report the microscopic botanical features, the chromatographic fingerprints, the antioxidant activities, and the peroxidase inhibition of bulk-marketed black teas consumed in DR Congo. The microscopic analysis of powders from unpackaged black tea marketed in DR Congo allowed the identification of specific microscopical features, which are characteristic to C. sinensis (L.) such as numerous asterosclerites, numerous fragments of unicellular trichomes; fragments of abaxial epidermis consisting of cells with slightly wavy walls, numerous anomocytic stomata, and the detection of biological contaminants, e.g. the dust mites. TLC and HPLC analysis indicated that flavonoids (hyperoside, rutin) and phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid, gallic acid) were major phenolic compounds, along with other secondary metabolites. Aqueous extracts from all bulk-marketed black teas exhibited good antioxidant activities at the concentrations range of 1 - 20 μg·mL-1 using in vitro ABTS and DPPH assays. These extracts showed equally inhibitory effects on myeloperoxidase (MPO) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) activities at the concentration ranges of 1 - 20 μg·mL-1 and 20 - 100 μg·mL-1 respectively. Bulk-marketed black teas consumed in DR Congo possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties comparable to packaged Ceylon tea largely marketed. The observed bioactivities support the health benefits of the consumed black tea by Congolese people, despite the storage conditions to be improved in order to preserve its nutritional and therapeutic assets.
Cite this paper: Kabamba, N. , Katalayi, J. , Kabengele, J. , Djoumbissi, G. , Kapinga, M. , Fundu, T. , Tshitenge, D. , Kalenda, P. and Kapepula, P. (2019) Peroxidase Inhibition and Antioxidant Activity of Bulk-Marketed Black Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) from the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, 7, 66-80. doi: 10.4236/jbm.2019.79007.

[1]   Reygaert, W.C. (2017) An Update on the Health Benefits of Green Tea. Beverages, 3, 1-14.

[2]   Cabrera, C., Artacho, R. and Gime, R. (2006) Beneficial Effects of Green Tea—A Review. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 25, 79-99.

[3]   Bartoszek, M., Polak, J. and Chorazewski, M. (2018) Comparison of Antioxidant Capacities of Different Types of Tea Using the Spectroscopy Methods and Semi-Empirical Mathematical Model. European Food Research Technology, 244, 595-601.

[4]   Zhao, C., Li, C., Liu, S. and Yang, L. (2014) The Galloyl Catechins Contributing to Main Antioxidant Capacity of Tea Made from Camellia sinensis in China. The Scientific World Journal, 2014, Article ID: 863984.

[5]   Bansal, S., Choudhary, S., Sharma, M., Sharad, S., Lohan, S., Bhardwaj, V., Jyoti, S., et al. (2013) Tea: A Native Source of Antimicrobial Agents. Food Research International, 53, 568-584.

[6]   Agnieszka Kosinska, W.A. (2014) Antioxidant Capacity of Tea: Effect of Processing and Storage. In: Preedy, V., Ed., Processing and Impact on Antioxidants in Beverages, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 109-120.

[7]   Bahati, L.M., Kapepula, P.M., Kabamba, N.N., Moni, B., Kafuti, G.M., Mungitshi, M., Fundu, T.M., et al. (2017) Microscopic Features, Chromatographic Fingerprints and Antioxidant Property of Some Unconventional Green Leafy Vegetables Consumed in Bandundu, DR Congo. Pharmacognosy Communications, 7, 158-163.

[8]   Wagner, H., Bauer, R., Melchart, D., Xioa, P.-G. and Staudinger, A. (2013) Chromatographic Fingerprint Analysis of Herbal Medicinal: Thin-Layer High Performance Liquid Chromatography of Chinese Drugs. Vol. 3, Springer International Publishing, Berlin.

[9]   Kapepula, P.M., Kabamba Ngombe, N., Tshisekedi Tshibangu, P., Tsumbu, C., Franck, T., Mouithys-Mickalad, A., Frédérich, M., et al. (2017) Comparison of Metabolic Profiles and Bioactivities of the Leaves of Three Edible Congolese Hibiscus Species. Natural Product Research, 31, 2885-2892.

[10]   Ngombe, N.K., Ngolo, C.N., Kialengila, D.M., Wamba, A.L., Mungisthi, P.M., Tshibangu, P.T., Kapepula, P.M., et al. (2019) Cellular Antioxidant Activity and Peroxidase Inhibition of Infusions from Different Aerial Parts of Cassia occidentalis. Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, 7, 83-94.

[11]   Kapepula, P.M., Ngumbi, P.B., Kawayidiko, M.K., Mpanzu, A.D., Franck, T., Mouithys-Mickalad, A., Tsobo, C.M., et al. (2018) Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Activities of Rungia congoensis, a Traditional Vegetable Consumed by Yombe People from Kongo Central Area (DR. Congo). Natural Product Research, 33, 1650-1654.

[12]   Franck, T., Mouithys-Mickalad, A., Robert, T., Ghitti, G., Deby-Dupont, G., Neven, P. and Serteyn, D. (2013) Differentiation between Stoichiometric and Anticatalytic Antioxidant Properties of Benzoic Acid Analogues: A Structure/Redox Potential Relationship Study. Chemico-Biological Interactions, 206, 194-203.

[13]   Evans, W. (2009) Trease and Evans Pharmacognosy. Elsevier Health Sciences, London, 614.

[14]   Sedova, I., Kiseleva, M. and Tutelyan, V. (2018) Determination and Risk Evaluation. Toxins, 10, 444.

[15]   Carloni, P., Tiano, L., Padella, L., Bacchetti, T., Customu, C., Kay, A. and Damiani, E. (2012) Antioxidant Activity of White, Green and Black Tea Obtained from the Same Tea Cultivar. Food Research International, 53, 900-908.

[16]   Sharangi, A.B. (2009) Medicinal and Therapeutic Potentialities of Tea (Camellia sinensis L.)—A Review. Food Research International, 42, 529-535.

[17]   Oliveira, A.P., Guimaraes, A.L., Goncalves de Oliveira-Junior, R., Quintans, J.S.S., Antônio de Medeiros, F., Barbosa-Filho, J.M. and Almeida, J.R.G.S. (2016) Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze: A Review of Chemical and Nutraceutical Properties. In: Gupta, V.K., Ed., Natural Products: Research Reviews, Volume 4, Chapter 2, Thomson Press, Haryana, 44.

[18]   Peterson, J., Dwyer, J., Bhagwat, S., Haytowitz, D. and Holden, J. (2005) Major Flavonoids in Dry Tea. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 18, 487-501.

[19]   El-Shahawi, M., Hamza, A., Bahaffi, S.O. and Abduljabbar, T.N. (2012) Analysis of Some Selected Catechins and Caffeine in Green Tea by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Food Chemistry, 134, 2268-2275.

[20]   Khan, A.A., Rahmani, A.H., Aldebasi, Y.H. and Aly, S.M. (2014) Biochemical and Pathological Studies on Peroxidases—An Updated Review. Global Journal of Health Science, 6, 87-98.

[21]   Ray, R.S. and Katyal, A. (2016) Myeloperoxidase: Bridging the Gap in Neurodegeneration. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 68, 611-620.

[22]   Shiba, Y., Kinoshita, T., Chuman, H., Taketani, Y., Takeda, E., Kato, Y., Kawai, Y., et al. (2008) Flavonoids as Substrates and Inhibitors of Myeloperoxidase: Molecular Actions of Aglycone and Metabolites. Chemical Research in Toxicology, 21, 1600-1609.

[23]   Gau, J., Furtmüller, P.G., Obinger, C., Prévost, M., Van Antwerpen, P., Arnhold, J. and Flemmig, J. (2016) Flavonoids as Promoters of the (pseudo-)halogenating Activity of Lactoperoxidase and Myeloperoxidase. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 97, 307-319.

[24]   Ostojic, J., Herenda, S., Galijasevic, S., Galic, B. and Milos, M. (2017) Inhibition of Horseradish Peroxidase Activity by Boroxine Derivative, Dipotassium-Trioxohydroxytetrafluorotriborate K2[B3O3F4OH]. Journal of Chemistry, 2017, Article ID: 8134350.

[25]   Mahfoudi, R., Djeridane, A., Benarous, K., Gaydou, E.M. and Yousfi, M. (2017) Structure-Activity Relationships and Molecular Docking of Thirteen Synthesized Flavonoids as Horseradish Peroxidase Inhibitors. Bioorganic Chemistry, 74, 201-211.

[26]   Serteyn, D., Grulke, S., Franck, T., Mouithys-Mickalad, A. and Deby-Dupont, G. (2003) La myéloperoxydase des neutrophiles, une enzyme de défense aux capacités oxydantes. Annales de Medecine Veterinaire, 147, 79-93.