OJGen  Vol.9 No.3 , September 2019
Influence of DAP1 Genotype and Psychosocial Factors on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Thai Tsunami Survivors: A GxE Approach
Abstract: Background: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric disorder found in individuals afflicted by a traumatic event including the natural disaster. “Tsunami” occurred in Andaman coast of Thailand on December 26, 2004, in which 33.6% of survivors were diagnosed as PTSD. This study aimed to explore the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). rs267943 genotype is located on chromosome 5 in the intron of the death-associated protein 1 (DAP1) gene and psychosocial factors for PTSD. Methods: Participants (N = 1970) were recruited from volunteers who have complete data both of DAP1 gene and psychosocial factor. Results: Using a binary logistic regression model, significant gene-environment interactions were found for the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs267943 and psychosocial factors including depression (adj. OR = 6.0, 95% CI = 4.29 - 8.39), neurotic personality (adj. OR = 2.73, 95% CI = 2.18 - 3.42), planning (adj. OR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.20 - 1.93), use of emotional support (adj. OR = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.21 - 1.94) with statistical significant p < 0.001 and self-distraction (adj. OR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.15 - 1.85) with statistical significant p < 0.05. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that GxE studies can be utilized to shed light on the origins of PTSD.
Cite this paper: Thavichachart, N. , Rutchatajumroon, P. , Mushiroda, T. , Prasansuklab, A. , Tangwongchai, S. , Worakul, P. , Kanchanatawan, B. , Suppapitiporn, S. , Sughondhabirom, A. , Roomruangwong, C. , Charoensook, O. , Chantratita, W. , Takahashi, A. , Kubo, M. , Kamatani, N. and Nakamura, Y. (2019) Influence of DAP1 Genotype and Psychosocial Factors on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Thai Tsunami Survivors: A GxE Approach. Open Journal of Genetics, 9, 65-75. doi: 10.4236/ojgen.2019.93005.

[1]   Stein, M.B., Chen, C.-Y., Ursano, R.J., Cai, T., Gelernter, J., Heeringa, S.G., Jain, S., Jensen, K.P., Maihofer, A.X., Mitchell, C., et al. (2016) Genome-Wide Association Studies of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in 2 Cohorts of US Army Soldiers. JAMA Psychiatry, 73, 695-704.

[2]   Nievergelt, C.M., Maihofer, A.X., Mustapic, M., Yurgil, K.A., Schork, N.J., Miller, M.W., Logue, M.W., Geyer, M.A., Risbrough, V.B., O’Connor, D.T. and Baker, D.G. (2015) Genomic Predictors of Combat Stress Vulnerability and Resilience in US Marines: A Genome-Wide Association Study Across Multiple Ancestries Implicates PRTFDC1 as a Potential PTSD Gene. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 51, 459-471.

[3]   Guffanti, G., Galea, S., Yan, L., Roberts, A.L., Solovieff, N., Aiello, A.E., Smoller, J.W., De Vivo, I., Ranu, H. and Uddin, M., et al. (2013) Genome-Wide Association Study Implicates a Novel RNA Gene, the LincRNA AC068718.1, as a Risk Factor for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Women. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 38, 3029-3038.

[4]   Ressler, K.J., Mercer, K.B., Bradley, B., Jovanovic, T., Mahan, A., Kerley, K., Norrholm, S.D., Kilaru, V., Smith, A.K., Myers, A.J., et al. (2011) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder is Associated with PACAP and the PAC1 Receptor. Nature, 470, 492-497.

[5]   Logue, M.W., Baldwin, C., Guffanti, G., Melista, E., Wolf, E.J., Reardon, A.F., Uddin, M., Wildman, D., Galea, S., Koenen, K.C. and Miller, M.W. (2013) A Genome-Wide Association Study of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Identifies the Retinoid-Related Orphan Receptor Alpha (RORA) Gene as a Significant Risk Locus. Molecular Psychiatry, 18, 937-942.

[6]   Duncan, L.E., Ratanatharathorn, A., Aiello, A.E., Almli, L.M., Amstadter, A.B., Ashley-Koch, A.E., Baker, D.G., Beckham, J.C., Bierut, L.J., Bisson, J., et al. (2018) Largest GWAS of PTSD (N= 20 070) Yields Genetic Overlap with Schizophrenia and Sex Differences in Heritability. Molecular Psychiatry, 23, 666-673.

[7]   Schottenbauer, M.A., Glass, C.R., Arnkoff, D.B., Tendick, V. and Gray, S.H. (2008) Nonresponse and Dropout Rates in Outcome Studies on PTSD: Review and Methodological Considerations. Psychiatry: Interpersonal and Biological Processes, 71, 134-168.

[8]   Afifi, T.O., Asmundson, G.J., Taylor, S. and Jang, K.L. (2010) The Role of Genes and Environment on Trauma Exposure and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms: A Review of Twin Studies. Clinical Psychology Review, 30, 101-112.

[9]   Deiss, L.P., Feinstein, E., Berissi, H., Cohen, O. and Kimchi, A. (1995) Identification of a Novel Serine/Threonine Kinase and a Novel 15-kD Protein as Potential Mediators of the Gamma Interferon-Induced Cell Death. Genes & Development, 9, 15-30.

[10]   González-Estévez, C., Felix, D.A., Aboobaker, A.A. and Saló, E. (2007) Gtdap-1 Promotes Autophagy and Is Required for Planarian Remodeling during Regeneration and Starvation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104, 13373-13378.

[11]   Vila, M. and Przedborski, S. (2003) Neurological Diseases: Targeting Programmed Cell Death in Neurodegenerative Diseases. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 4, 365-375.

[12]   Thavichachart, N., Mushiroda, T., Thavichachart, T., Charoensook, O., Prasansuklab, A., Rutchatajumroon, P., Tangwongchai, S., Worakul, P., Kanchanatawan, B., Suppapitiporn, S., et al. (2015) Genome-Wide Association Study in Thai Tsunami Survivors Identified Risk Alleles for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Open Journal of Genetics, 5, 43-57.

[13]   Avetyan, D., Arakelyan, A. and Mkrtchyan, G. (2018) Genetic Polymorphisms of Nervous System Development and the Risk of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. American Journal of Molecular Biology, 8, 58-68.

[14]   Avetyan, D., Arakelyan, A. and Mkrtchyan, G. (2018) Association of Bax and Bcl-2 Functional Polymorphisms and Protein Levels with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, 6, 23-32.

[15]   Jiang, X.L. and Guo, J.C. (2016) A Associated Research for Genetic Polymorphism of 5-Httlpr with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: P0223. International Journal of Psychology, 51, 132.

[16]   Committee, P.G.C.C. (2009) Genomewide Association Studies: History, Rationale, and Prospects for Psychiatric Disorders. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 166, 540-556.

[17]   Thavichachart, N., Tangwongchai, S., Worakul, P., Kanchanatawan, B., Suppapitiporn, S., Na Pattalung, A.S., Roomruangwong, C. and Chareonsook, O. (2009) Posttraumatic Mental Health Establishment of the Tsunami Survivors in Thailand. Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health, 5, 11.

[18]   Davidson, J.R.T., Tharwani, H.M. and Connor, K.M. (2002) Davidson Trauma Scale (DTS): Normative Scores in the General Population and Effect Sizes in PlaceboControlled SSRI Trials. Depression and Anxiety, 15, 75-78.

[19]   Beck, A.T., Steer, R.A., Ball, R. and Ranieri, W.F. (1996) Comparison of Beck Depression Inventories-IA and-II in Psychiatric Outpatients. Journal of Personality Assessment, 67, 588-597.

[20]   Pichot, P. and Olivier-Martin, R. (1974) Psychological Measurements in Psychopharmacology. Karger, Switzerland.

[21]   Eysenck, H.J. (1958) Manual of the Maudsley Personality Inventory. University of London Press, London.

[22]   Yusoff, N., Low, W. and Yip, C. (2010) Reliability and Validity of the Brief COPE Scale (English Version) among Women with Breast Cancer Undergoing Treatment of Adjuvant Chemotherapy: A Malaysian Study. Medical Journal of Malaysia, 65, 41-44.

[23]   Wolf, E.J., Mitchell, K.S., Koenen, K.C. and Miller, M.W. (2014) Combat Exposure Severity as a Moderator of Genetic and Environmental Liability to Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Psychological Medicine, 44, 1499-1509.

[24]   Sartor, C.E., McCutcheon, V., Pommer, N., Nelson, E., Grant, J., Duncan, A., Waldron, M., Bucholz, K., Madden, P. and Heath, A. (2011) Common Genetic and Environmental Contributions to Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Alcohol Dependence in Young Women. Psychological Medicine, 41, 1497-1505.

[25]   Stein, M.B., Jang, K.L., Taylor, S., Vernon, P.A. and Livesley, W.J. (2002) Genetic and Environmental Influences on Trauma Exposure and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms: A Twin Study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 1675-1681.

[26]   True, W.R., Rice, J., Eisen, S.A., Heath, A.C., Goldberg, J., Lyons, M.J. and Nowak, J. (1993) A Twin Study of Genetic and Environmental Contributions to Liability for Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms. Archives of General Psychiatry, 50, 257-264.

[27]   Hovhannisyan, L., Stepanyan, A. and Arakelyan, A. (2017) Genetic Variability of Interleukin-1 Beta as Prospective Factor from Developing Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Immunogenetics, 69, 703-708.

[28]   Parade, S.H., Novick, A.M., Parent, J., Seifer, R., Klaver, S.J., Marsit, C.J., Gobin, A.P., Yang, B.-Z. and Tyrka, A.R. (2017) Stress Exposure and Psychopathology Alter Methylation of the Serotonin Receptor 2A (HTR2A) Gene in Preschoolers. Development and Psychopathology, 29, 1619-1626.

[29]   Conrad, D., Wilker, S., Schneider, A., Karabatsiakis, A., Pfeiffer, A., Kolassa, S., Freytag, V., Vukojevic, V., Vogler, C., Milnik, A., et al. (2018) Integrated Genetic, Epigenetic, and Gene Set Enrichment Analyses Identify NOTCH as a Potential Mediator for PTSD Risk after Trauma: Results from Two Independent African Cohorts. Psychophysiology, e13288.

[30]   Bangasser, D.A., Curtis, A., Reyes, B.A., Bethea, T.T., Parastatidis, I., Ischiropoulos, H., Van Bockstaele, E.J. and Valentino, R.J. (2010) Sex Differences in Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Receptor Signaling and Trafficking: Potential Role in Female Vulnerability to Stress-Related Psychopathology. Molecular Psychiatry, 15, 896-904.