JEAS  Vol.9 No.3 , September 2019
Synthesized Goethite and Natural Iron Oxide as Effective Absorbents for Simultaneous Removal of Co(II) and Ni(II) Ions from Water
Abstract: This study reports on the adsorption efficiency of a natural iron oxide from Mballam-Cameroon in comparison with synthesized goethite to simulta-neously remove cobalt and nickel ions from aqueous solutions. Chemical analysis on the natural iron oxide sample revealed iron as the main element and hematite (58.52%) goethite (19.42%), kaolinite (12.69%) and quartz (7.79%) as the component phases in the iron oxide sample. The iron oxide was found to be microporous (BET surface area 43.27 m2/g) with fairly spherical polydisperse particles. Results show maximum absorption for Co(II) and Ni(II) ions for both adsorbents occurred at an equilibrium contact time of 80 mins, dose rate of 0.1 g/L, and pH = 7. Goethite was slightly more efficient at removing target metal ions with maximal adsorbed quantities at 117.8 mg/g of Co(II) and 100.6 mg/g of Ni(II), and 103.9 mg/g of Co(II) and 85.2 mg/g of Ni(II) ions for natural iron oxide. Equilibrium modelling presented the Freundlich isotherm as the best fit model for both adsorbents and metal ions, indicating heterogeneity of the surface binding sites during adsorption. The pseudo-second order kinetic model was the best-fit model, indicating chemical adsorption between the adsorbent surface and metal ions, hence a good correlation between equilibrium and kinetics. The findings indicate that the efficacy of the natural iron oxide from Mballam is almost equivalent to that of synthetic goethite, validating its applicability for the simultaneous removal of cobalt and nickel ions from aqueous solution.
Cite this paper: Nangah, C. , Merlain, T. , Nsami, N. , Tubwoh, C. , Foba-Tendo, J. and Mbadcam, K. (2019) Synthesized Goethite and Natural Iron Oxide as Effective Absorbents for Simultaneous Removal of Co(II) and Ni(II) Ions from Water. Journal of Encapsulation and Adsorption Sciences, 9, 127-147. doi: 10.4236/jeas.2019.93007.

[1]   Duruibe, J.O., Ogwuegbu, M.O.C. and Egwurugwu, J.N. (2007) Heavy Metal Pollution and Human Biotoxic Effects. International Journal of Physical Sciences, 2, 112-118.

[2]   Atibu, E.K., Devarajan, N., Laffite, A., Giuliani, G., Salumu, J.A., Muteb, R.C., Mulaji, C.K., Otamonga, J.P., Elongo, V., Mpian, P.T. and Poté, J. (2016) Assessment of Trace Metal and Rare Earth Elements Contamination in Rivers around Abandoned and Active Mine Areas. The Case of Lubumbashi River and Tshamilemba Canal, Katanga, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Geochemistry, 76, 353-362.

[3]   Kitula, A.G.N. (2006) The Environmental and Socio-Economic Impacts of Mining on Local Livelihoods in Tanzania: A Case Study of Geita District. Journal of Cleaner Production, 14, 405-414.

[4]   Mehler, W.T., Gagliardi, B., Keough, M.J. and Pettigrove, V. (2019) Evaluating Freshwater Mining Sediment Toxicity in Tasmania: Achieving Strong Multiple Lines of Evidence. Science of the Total Environment, 651, 1243-1252.

[5]   Muruven, D.N. and Tekere, M. (2013) An Evaluation of the Cumulative Surface Water Pollution on Selected Areas within the Consolidated Main Reef Area, Roodepoort, South Africa. Air, Soil and Water Research, 6, 121-130.

[6]   Kossoff, D., Hudson-Edwards, K.A., Howard, A.J. and Knight, D. (2016) Industrial Mining Heritage and the Legacy of Environmental Pollution in the Derbyshire Derwent Catchment: Quantifying Contamination at a Regional Scale and Developing Integrated Strategies for Management of the Wider Historic Environment. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports, 6, 190-199.

[7]   Candeias, C., ávila, P., Coelho, P. and Teixeira, J.P. (2018) Mining Activities: Health Impacts. In: Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences, Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

[8]   Hossein, A., Sahebi-Shahemabadi, M., Rooholah, M. and Farrokh, A.S. (2009) Cobalt in Zahedan Drinking Water. Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 5, 2203-2207.

[9]   World Health Organization (2011) Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality. 4th Edition, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland, 397.

[10]   Wilson, L.J. (1994) Canada-Wide Survey of Acid Mine Drainage Characteristics. MEND Report 3.22.1, 9-20.

[11]   Lupankwa, K., Love, D., Mapani, B.S. and Mseka, S. (2004) Impact of a Base Metal Slimes Dam on Water Systems, Madziwa Mine, Zimbabwe. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, 29, 1145-1151.

[12]   Meck, M., Love, D. and Mapani, B. (2006) Zimbabwean Mine Dumps and Their Impacts on River Water Quality—A Reconnaissance Study. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, 31, 797-803.

[13]   Krishna, G.B. and Susmita, S.G. (2006) Adsorption of Chromium (VI) from Water by Clays. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 45, 7232-7240.

[14]   Bulut, Y. and Tez, Z. (2007) Removal of Heavy Metals from Aqueous Solution by Sawdust Adsorption. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 19, 160-166.

[15]   Saad, S.A., Isa, K.M. and Bahari, R. (2010) Chemically Modified Sugarcane Bagasse as a Potentially Low-Cost Biosorbent for Dye Removal. Desalination, 264, 123-128.

[16]   Azraa, A., Jain, K., Tong, K.S., Rozaini, C.A. and Tan, L.S. (2012) Equilibrium, Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies on the Adsorption of Direct Dye onto a Novel Green Adsorbent Developed from Uncaria Gambir Extract. Journal of Physical Science, 23, 1-13.

[17]   Omer, Y., Yalcin, A. and Fuat, G. (2003) Removal of Copper, Nickel, Cobalt and Manganese from Aqueous Solution by Kaolinite. Water Research, 37, 948-952.

[18]   Mekhemer, W.K., Hefneb, J.A., Alandisa, N.M., Aldayel, O.A. and Al-Raddadi, S. (2008) Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Co(II) Adsorption onto Natural and Treated Bentonite. Jordan Journal of Chemistry, 3, 409-423.

[19]   Dragan, D., Dejan, S., Novica, D. and Miodrag, S. (2011) Thermodynamics of Reactive Dye Adsorption from Aqueous Solution on the Ashes from City Heating Station. Chemical Engineering Science, 8, 527-536.

[20]   Wael, Q. and Mane, A.V. (2013) Characterization and Treatment of Selected Food Industrial Effluents by Coagulation and Adsorption Techniques. Water Resources and Industry, 4, 1-12.

[21]   Evans, T.M. (2010) Use of Low Cost Adsorbents to Treat Industrial Wastewater. Unpublished Thesis, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, 28.

[22]   Singh, R.S., Singh, V.K., Tiwari, P.N., Singh, U.N. and Sharma, Y.C. (2009) An Economic Removal of Ni(II) from Aqueous Solutions Using an Indigenous Adsorbent. The Open Environmental Engineering Journal, 2, 30-36.

[23]   Aredes, S., Klen, B. and Pawlik, M. (2013) The Removal of Arsenic from Water Using Iron Oxide Minerals. Journal of Cleaner Production, 60, 71-76.

[24]   Montes-Hernandez, G., Beck, P., Renard, F., Quirico, E., Lanson, B., Chiriac, R. and Findling, N. (2011) Fast Precipitation of Acicular Goethite from Ferric Hydroxide Gel under Moderate Temperature (30 and 70 °C). Crystal Growth & Design, 11, 2264-2272.

[25]   Xiong, H.X. and Zhou, L.X. (2009) Preparation of Nanocrystalline Goethite (α-FeOOH) by Gel-Network Precipitation Method and Spectral Properties. PubMed, 29, 1590-1594.

[26]   Mohapatra, M., Mohapatra, L., Singh, P., Anand, S. and Mishra, B.K. (2010) A Comparative Study on Pb(II), Cd(II), Cu(II), Co(II) Adsorption From Single and Binary Aqueous Solutions on Additive Assisted Nano-Structured Goethite. International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology, 2, 89-103.

[27]   Ketcha, J.M., Tchatat, W.G.F. and Hambate, G.V. (2010) Adsorption of Ferricyanide Ion in Activated Carbon and γ-Alumina. E-Journal of Chemistry, 7, 721-726.

[28]   Marek, K., Durand-Vidal, S., Edward, M. and Jarl, B.R. (2004) Morphology of Synthetic Goethite Particles. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 271, 261-269.

[29]   Mohapatra, M. and Anand, S. (2010) Synthesis and Applications of Nano-Structured Iron Oxides/Hydroxides—A Review. International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology, 2, 127-146.

[30]   Cornell, R.M. and Schwertmann, U. (2003) The Iron Oxides: Structure, Properties, Reactions, Occurrences and Uses. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co., KGaA, Weinheim, 141-143, 253-296.

[31]   Bhaskar, J.S., Parthasarathy, G. and Sarmah, N.C. (2008) Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic Estimation of Crystallinity in SiO2 Based Rocks. Bulletin of Materials Science, 31, 775-779.

[32]   Samira, B., Chandrappa, K.G. and Sharifah, B.A.H. (2013) Generation of Hematite Nanoparticles via Sol-Gel Method. Research Journal of Chemical Sciences, 3, 62-68.

[33]   Chen, Y.-H. and Li, F.-A. (2010) Kinetic Study on Removal of Copper(II) Using Goethite and Hematite Nano-Photocatalysts. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 347, 277-281.

[34]   Beyene, H.A. and Alemayehu, A.M. (2013) Removal of Ni(II) from Aqueous Solution Using Leaf, Bark and Seed of Moringa Stenopetala Adsorbents. Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia, 27, 35-47.

[35]   El Ouardi, M., Laabd, M., Oualid, H.A., Brahmi, Y., Abaamrane, A., Elouahli, A., Addi, A.A. and Laknifli, A. (2019) Efficient Removal of p-Nitrophenol from Water Using Montmorillonite Clay: Insights into the Adsorption Mechanism, Process Optimization, and Regeneration. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 26, 19615-19631.

[36]   Abdus-Salam, N. and Adekola, F.A. (2005) The Influence of pH and Adsorbent Concentration on Adsorption of Lead and Zinc on a Natural Goethite. African Journal of Science and Technology, 6, 55-66.

[37]   Dwivedi, A.D., Dubey, S.P., Sillanpaa, M., Kwon, Y.-N. and Lee, C. (2015) Distinct Adsorption Enhancement of Bi-Component Metals (Cobalt and Nickel) by Fireweed-Derived Carbon Compared to Activated Carbon: Incorporation of Surface Group Distributions for Increased Efficiency. Chemical Engineering Journal, 281, 713-723.

[38]   Awual, M.R., Alharthi, N.H., Hasan, M.M., Karim, M.R., Islam, A., Khaleque, M.A., Znad, H., Hossain, M.A., Halim, M.E. and Rahman, M.M. (2017) Inorganic-Organic Based Novel Nano-Conjugate Material for Effective Cobalt(II) Ions Capturing from Wastewater. Chemical Engineering Journal, 324, 130-139.

[39]   Guo, N., Su, S.-J., Liao, B., Ding, S.-L. and Sun, W.-Y. (2017) Preparation and Properties of a Novel Macro Porous Ni2+-Imprinted Chitosan Foam Adsorbents for Adsorption of Nickel Ions from Aqueous Solution. Carbohydrate Polymers, 165, 376-383.

[40]   Yang, S.T., Li, J.X., Shao, D.D., Hu, J. and Wang, X.K. (2009) Adsorption of Ni(II) on Oxidized Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes: Effect of Contact Time, pH, Foreign Ions and PAA. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 166, 109-116.

[41]   Mobasherpour, I., Salahi, E. and Ebrahimi, M. (2012) Removal of Divalent Nickel Cations from Aqueous Solution by Multi-Walled Carbon Nano Tubes: Equilibrium and Kinetic Processes. Research on Chemical Intermediates, 38, 2205–2222.

[42]   Wang, Q., Li, J., Chen, C., Ren, X., Hu, J. and Wang, X. (2011) Removal of Cobalt from Aqueous Solution by Magnetic Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube/Iron Oxide Composites. Chemical Engineering Journal, 174, 126-133.

[43]   Swayampakula, K., Boddu, V.M., Nadavala, S.K. and Abbur, K. (2009) Competitive Adsorption of Cu (II), Co (II) and Ni (II) from Their Binary and Tertiary Aqueous Solutions Using Chitosan-Coated Perlite Beads as Biosorbent. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 170, 680-689.

[44]   Roy, A. and Bhattacharya, J. ((2013)) A Binary and Ternary Adsorption Study of Wastewater Cd(II), Ni(II) and Co(II) by γ-Fe2O3 Nanotubes. Separation and Purification Technology, 115, 172-179.

[45]   Tofighy, M.A. and Mohammadi, T. (2011) Adsorption of Divalent Heavy Metal Ions from Water Using Carbon Nanotube Sheets. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 185, 140-147.

[46]   Krishnie, M., Ruella, S., Evans, T.M., Maurice, S.O. and Aoyi, O. (2011) Removal of Nickel from Wastewater Using an Agricultural Adsorbent. Water SA, 37, 41-46.

[47]   Wang, C., Boithias, L., Ning, Z., Han, Y., Sauvage, S., Sánchez-Pérez, J.-M., Kuramochi, K. and Hatano, R. (2017) Comparison of Langmuir and Freundlich Adsorption Equations within the SWAT-K Model for Assessing Potassium Environmental Losses at Basin Scale. Agricultural Water Management, 180, 205-211.

[48]   Woodward, G.L., Peacock, C.L., Thompson, O.R., Otero-Farina, A., Brown, A.P. and Burk, I.T. (2018) A Universal Uptake Mechanism for Cobalt(II) on Soil Constituents: Ferrihydrite, Kaolinite, Humic Acid, and Organo-Mineral Composites. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 238, 270-291.