OJGen  Vol.9 No.3 , September 2019
Linguistic-Probabilistic and Quantum Understanding of Gene Operation
Abstract: This paper introduces the hypothesis that during the biosynthesis of prion proteins, the ribosome works in the opposite direction and thus, it is a “prion-poly-anticodon-dependent mRNA polymerase”. And accordingly, in violation of the Central Dogma, information flows from protein to RNA. This requires dogma formula to be re-written as follows: DNARNA Protein. The idea of contextual orientations of the ribosome on mRNA during protein biosynthesis is introduced. This ensures the selection of the correct amino acid or stop position due to the strategic role of the “wobbling” off the 3’-codon nucleotide in non-synonymous codons. This leads to the transition of the genetic code from purely a physico-chemical level of its operation to mental-textual one. This is a representation of the fact of one of the levels of non-locality (continuity) of the genome. There are six such levels of nonlocality. Level 1—Organizational. Here, non-locality is expressed with the ability to regenerate, for example, in planarians. Level 2—Cellular. From every cell, and not just from zygotes, you can grow a whole organism. Level 3—Cellular-nuclear. Enucleation of nuclei from somatic and germinal cells with the subsequent introduction of other nuclei into them does not prevent the development of a normal organism. Level 4—Molecular: the ribosome “reads” the informational RNA not only for individual codons, but for the whole RNA, taking into account the context, that is, non-locally, continually. Level 5— Chromosome-holographic. The genome has a holographic memory, and this is a typically distributed (non-local) associative memory. At this and subsequent levels, non-locality acquires a new quality, a dualistic, material-wave character, since holograms as a substance are “read” by electromagnetic and/or acoustic fields that carry genome-wave information beyond the substance of chromosomes. Level 6—Quantum non-locality of the genome. Up to level 6, the non-locality of genetic information is realized in the space of the organism. Level 6 has a special character and a new quality. It manifests itself in one of the forms of quantum non-locality, namely, permissive, postulated in this work. In this case, the non-locality is realized both in the space of the biosystem and in its own, “compressible” to zero, time. Gene-wave programs that are instantly distributed in such ways, isomorphic to material ones, work in the body “here and there at the same time”, therefore, the semantic construction “first and then” loses its meaning. And this is a strategic factor, an extraordinary achievement for multicellular biosystems. We have obtained theoretical and experimental results confirming our ideas.
Cite this paper: Gariaev, P. (2019) Linguistic-Probabilistic and Quantum Understanding of Gene Operation. Open Journal of Genetics, 9, 43-64. doi: 10.4236/ojgen.2019.93004.

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