JBM  Vol.7 No.8 , August 2019
Prevalence of Hepatitis C Virus Infection and Risk Factors among Pregnant Women in Pointe Noire, Republic of Congo
Abstract: Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a public health problem and is highly endemic in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence and potential risk factors of hepatitis C virus in pregnant women. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving pregnant women who attended at seven antenatal clinics in Pointe Noire, from June to November 2018. Structured questionnaires were used to obtain participants data. Samples were screened for HCV infection by using 4th ELISA methods and data analysis was done by Epi-info version 7.0 statistical software. Results: A total of 150 pregnant women were included, out of which 11 (7.3%) were positive for HCV. The high proportion of HCV was found in age group 25 - 34 years (45.4%), educated (81.1%), professional (36.4%) and 54.6% were in second trimester gestational stage. Moreover, 54.6% of HCV positive patients had scarification and 45.5% had a history of surgery. There was not a statistically significant association between demographics characteristics, risks factors and HCV seropositivity (p > 0.05). Conclusion: This study showed a high prevalence of HCV infection and confirmed that this infection is a public health problem in pregnant women in Pointe Noire.
Cite this paper: Angounda, B. , Mokono, S. , Itoua-Ngaporo, N. , M’vouala, J. , Mimiesse, J. , Apendi, C. , Ahombo, G. , Ibara, B. and Ibara, J. (2019) Prevalence of Hepatitis C Virus Infection and Risk Factors among Pregnant Women in Pointe Noire, Republic of Congo. Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, 7, 84-93. doi: 10.4236/jbm.2019.78007.

[1]   Shepard, C.W., Finelli, L. and Alter, M.J. (2005) Global Epidemiology of Hepatitis C Virus Infection. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 5, 558-567.

[2]   Madhava, V., Burgess, C. and Drucker, E. (2002) Epidemiology of Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Sub-Saharan Africa. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 2, 293-302.

[3]   Seeff, L.B. (2002) Natural History of Chronic Hepatitis C. Hepatology, 36, S35-S46.

[4]   World Health Organization (1997) Hepatitis C WHO Fact Sheet No 164.

[5]   Global Burden of Disease Hepatitis C Working Group (2004) Global Burden of Disease (GBD) for Hepatitis C. The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 44, 20-29.

[6]   Lavanchy, D. (1999) Global Surveillance and Control of Hepatitis C. Report of a WHO Consultation Organized in Collaboration with the Viral Hepatitis Prevention Board, Antwerp, Belgium. Journal of Viral Hepatitis, 6, 35-47.

[7]   Alter, M.J. (2007) Epidemiology of Hepatitis C Virus Infection. World Journal of Gastroenterology, 13, 2436-2441.

[8]   Floreani, A. (2013) Hepatitis C and Pregnancy. World Journal of Gastroenterology, 19, 6714-6720.

[9]   Yeung, L.T., King, S.M. and Roberts, E.A. (2001) Mother-to-Infant Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus. Hepatology, 34, 223-229.

[10]   Roberts, E.A. and Yeung, L. (2002) Maternal-Infant Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus Infection. Hepatology, 36, S106-S113.

[11]   Gasim, I., Murad, I.A. and Ishag, A. (2013) Hepatitis B and C Virus Infections among Pregnant Women in Arab and African Countries. The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, 7, 566-578.

[12]   Pawlowska, M. (2015) Pegylated IFN-α-2a and Ribavirin in the Treatment of Hepatitis C Infection in Children. Expert Opinion on Drug Safety, 14, 343-348.

[13]   Muñoz-GÁmez, J.A., Salmerón, J. and Ruiz-Extremera, Á. (2016) Hepatitis C during Pregnancy, Vertical Transmission and New Treatment Possibilities. Medicina Clínica, 147, 499-505.

[14]   Arshad, M., El-Kamary, S.S. and Jhaveri, R. (2011) Hepatitis C Virus Infection during Pregnancy and the Newborn Period—Are They Opportunities for Treatment. Journal of Viral Hepatitis, 18, 229-236.

[15]   Laurent, C., Henzel, D., Mulanga-Kabeya, C., Maertens, G., Larouze, B. and Delaporte, E. (2001) Seroepidemiological Survey of Hepatitis C Virus among Commercial Sex Workers and Pregnant Women in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. International Journal of Epidemiology, 30, 872-877.

[16]   Ndjomou, J., Kupfer, B., Kochan, B., Zekeng, L., Kaptue, L. and Matz, B. (2002) Hepatitis C Virus Infection and Genotypes among Human Immunodeficiency Virus High-Risk Groups in Cameroon. Journal of Medical Virology, 66, 179-186.

[17]   Elira-Dokekias, A., Okandze-Elenga, J., Dzia-Lepfounzou, A. and Parra, H. (2002) Prévalence des marqueurs viraux majeurs chez les donneurs de sang à Brazzaville. Gazette Transfusion, 117, 4-6.

[18]   Bossali, F., Taty-Taty, R., Houssissa, P., N’suele, W. and Lingouala, L. (2012) Séroprévalence de la co-infection hépatite B, hépatite C et VIH chez des femmes accouchées à la maternité de l’hôpital Adolphe Sicé de Pointe-Noire en 2010. Journal Africain d’Hépato-Gastroentérologie, 6, 315-319.

[19]   Boumba, L.M.A., Monkessa, C.M.M.E., Moukassa, D., Atipo-Ibara, B.I. and Angounda, B.M. (2018) Seroprevalence and Molecular Biodiversity of Hepatitis C Virus in the Department of Lekoumou, Republic of the Congo. Journal of Virology & Retrovirology, 2, 112.

[20]   Hanafiah, M., Groeger, J., Flaxman, A.D. and Wiersma, S.T. (2013) Global Epidemiology of Hepatitis C Virus Infection: New Estimates of Age-Specific Antibody to HCV Seroprevalence. Hepatology, 57, 1333-1342.

[21]   Mutagoma, M., Balisanga, H., Malamba, S.S., Sebuhoro, D., Remera, E., Riedel, D.J. and Nsanzimana, S. (2017) Hepatitis B Virus and HIV Co-Infection among Pregnant Women in Rwanda. BMC Infectious Diseases, 17, 618.

[22]   Zenebe, Y., Mulu, W., Yimer, M. and Abera, B. (2015) Sero-Prevalence and Risk Factors of Hepatitis C Virus Infection among Pregnant Women in Bahir Dar City, Northwest Ethiopia: Cross Sectional Study. Pan African Medical Journal, 21, 158.

[23]   Ugbebor, O., Aigbirior, M., Osazuwa, F., Enabudoso, E., Zabayo, O. and Ewing, G.W. (2011) The Prevalence of Hepatitis B and C Viral Infections among Pregnant Women. North American Journal of Medicine & Science, 3, 238-241.

[24]   Ndong-Atome, G.R., Makuwa, M., Njouom, R., Branger, M., Brun-Vézinet, F., Mahé, A. and Kazanji, M. (2008) Hepatitis C Virus Prevalence and Genetic Diversity among Pregnant Women in Gabon, Central Africa. BMC Infectious Diseases, 8, 82.

[25]   AbdulQawi, K., Youssef, A., Metwally, M.A., Ragih, I., AbdulHamid, M. and Shaheen, A. (2010) Prospective Study of Prevalence and Risk Factors for Hepatitis C in Pregnant Egyptian Women and Its Transmission to Their Infants. Croatian Medical Journal, 51, 219-228.

[26]   Murad, E.A., Babiker, S.M., Gasim, G.I., Rayis, D.A. and Adam, I. (2013) Epidemiology of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Virus Infections in Pregnant Women in Sana’a, Yemen. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 13, 127.

[27]   Akhtar, A.M., Khan, M., Ijaz, T., Maqbool, A., Iqbal, Z., Rehman, A. and Majeed, S. (2014) Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Pregnant Women in Lahore, Pakistan: An Analytical Cross Sectional Study. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 16, 160-164.

[28]   Afsheen, Z., Ahmad, B. and Linfang, H. (2018) Prevalence of Hepatitis C and Associated Risk Factors among Pregnant Women of District Nowshera, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Advancements in Life Sciences, 5, 166-170.

[29]   Gündem, N.S. and Kalem, F. (2017) Seroprevalences of HBsAg and Anti-HCV among Pregnant Women in Turkey. Global Journal of Medicine and Public Health, 6, 1-6.

[30]   Khamis, H.H., Farghaly, A.G., Shatat, H.Z. and El-Ghitany, E.M. (2016) Prevalence of Hepatitis C Virus Infection among Pregnant Women in a Rural District in Egypt. Tropical Doctor, 46, 21-27.

[31]   Dibba, P., Cholankeril, R., Li, A.A., Patel, M., Fayek, M., Dibble, C., Okpara, N., Hines, A. and Ahmed, A. (2018) Hepatitis C in Pregnancy. Diseases, 6, 31.

[32]   Gibb, D.M., Goodall, R.L., Dunn, D.T., Healy, M., Neave, P., Cafferkey, M. and Butler, K. (2000) Mother-to-Child Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus: Evidence for Preventable Peripartum Transmission. The Lancet, 356, 904-907.

[33]   Ramarokoto, C.E., Rakotomanana, F., Ratsitorahina, M., Raharimanga, V., Razafindratsimandresy, R., Randremanana, R. and Soares, J.L. (2008) Seroprevalence of Hepatitis C and Associated Risk Factors in Urban Areas of Antananarivo, Madagascar. BMC Infectious Diseases, 8, 25.

[34]   Elsheikh, R.M., Daak, A.A., Elsheikh, M.A., Karsany, M.S. and Adam, I. (2007) Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatitis C Virus in Pregnant Sudanese Women. Virology Journal, 4, 104.

[35]   Hutchinson, S.J., Goldberg, D.J., King, M., Cameron, S.O. and Shaw, L.E. (2004) Hepatitis C Virus among Childbearing Women in Scotland: Prevalence, Deprivation, and Diagnosis. Gut, 53, 593-598.

[36]   Kumar, A., Sharma, K.A., Gupta, R.K., Kar, P. and Chakravarti, A. (2007) Prevalence & Risk Factors for Hepatitis C Virus among Pregnant Women. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 126, 211-215.

[37]   Jaffery, T., Tariq, N., Ayub, R. and Yawar, A. (2005) Frequency of Hepatitis C in Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcome. Journal—College of Physicians and Surgeons of Pakistan, 15, 716.

[38]   Shaikh, F., Naqvi, S., Qaiser, H. and Jilani, K. (2009) Prevalence and Risk Factors for Hepatitis C Virus during Pregnancy. Gomal Journal of Medical Sciences, 7, 2.