GEP  Vol.7 No.8 , August 2019
Groundwater Evolution, Hydrochemical Facies and Quality Evaluation for Irrigation Use in Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria
Hydrochemical facies, groundwater evolution, and physicochemical reactions between soil or rock and water are of considerable importance when evaluating or predicting the nature of anthropogenic impacts on groundwater quality. In this respect a total of 67 ground water samples were collected randomly in Akure, southwestern, Nigeria from hand pump/dug wells and analyzed for major cations and anions. The domination of cations and anions was in the order of Ca2+ > K+ > Na+ > Mg2+ and  > Cl- >  >  respectively. The pH and Eh of the water samples show an acidic condition, with low salinity hazard (generally less than 250 μS/cm). The Piper classification for hydrogeochemical facies indicates carbonate hardness (secondary alkalinity) exceeds 50% that is by alkaline earths and weak acids, with Ca2+ + Mg2+ +  water-type. This also suggests a meteoric origin of water quality caused by rock-water interaction. The ratio of  and Cl- is greater than 1 and implies recharge area or upper water flow course of carbonate rocks (interaction of water with aquifer material). The Na+:Cl- is less than 0.7 signifying loss of Na+ through precipitation of evaporating water; the water is Ca2+ rich and Na+ depleted with Mg2+:Ca2+ less than 0.5 and Na+:K+ less than 15. The Na+:Ca2+ (<1) indicates reverse ionic exchange. The Ca2+: +  for the samples is less than 1.0 suggestive of flow of water through the normal hydrological cycle. The calculated range of values of sodium absorption ratio (1.89 - 26.42), permeability index (42.67 - 170.24), residue sodium carbonate (-1 to 5), magnesium ratio (4 - 53), Kelly ratio (0.04 - 0.84), percent sodium (0.41 - 3.45) suggest good water suitable for irrigation purposes. In addition, the Wilcox plot shows that 98% of the water samples belong to “good to permissible category” for irrigation use.
Cite this paper: Falowo, O. , Amodu, M. , Oluwasegunfunmi, V. , Aliu, A. and Otuaga, M. (2019) Groundwater Evolution, Hydrochemical Facies and Quality Evaluation for Irrigation Use in Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria. Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection, 7, 118-140. doi: 10.4236/gep.2019.78009.

[1]   Alam, M., Rais, S., & Aslam, M. (2012). Hydrochemical Investigation and Quality Assessment of Ground Water in Rural Areas of Delhi, India. Environmental Earth Sciences, 66, 97-110.

[2]   Aniya, F. B., & Shoeneick, K. (1992). Hydrogeological Investigation of the Aquifer of Bauchi Area. Journal of Mining and Geology, 28, 45-53.

[3]   Back, W. (1960). Origin of Hydrochemical Facies in Groundwater in the Atlantic Coastal Plain.

[4]   Backman, B., Bodis, D., Lahermo, P., Rapant, S., & Tarvainen, T. (1998). Application of a Groundwater Contamination Index in Finland and Slovakia. Environmental Geology, 36, 55-64.

[5]   Bayode, S., Ojo, J. S., & Olorunfemi, M. O. (2006). Geoelectric Characterization of Aquifer Types in the Basement Complex Terrain of Pats of Osun State, Nigeria. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 12, 377-385.

[6]   Collins, R., & Jenkins, A. (1996). The Impact of Agricultural Land Use on Stream Chemistry in the Middle Hills of the Himalayas, Nepal. Journal of Hydrology, 185, 71-86.

[7]   Coulibaly, H., & Rodriguez, M. J. (2004). Development of Performance Indicators for Quebec Small Water Utilities. Journal of Environmental Management, 73, 243-255.

[8]   Domenico, P. A., & Schwartz, F. W. (1990). Physical and Chemical Hydrogeology (p. 824). New York: John Wiley & Sons.

[9]   Driscoll, F. G. (1986). Groundwater and Wells. St. Paul, MN: Johnson Division.

[10]   Fetter, C. W. (1983). Contaminant Hydrogeology. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co.

[11]   Fetter, C. W. (1990). Applied Hydrogeology (2nd ed., 592 p.). New Delhi: CBS Publisher & Distributor.

[12]   Fetter, C. W. (1993). Contaminant Hydrology. New York: Macmillan Pub. Co.

[13]   Freeze, R. A., & Cherry, J. A. (1979). Groundwater (604 p.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

[14]   Gibb, J. P., Schuller, R. M., & Griffin, R. A. (1981). Procedures for the Collection of Representative Water Quality Data from Monitoring Wells. Cooperative Groundwater Report No. 7, Champaign, IL: Illinois State Water Survey and Illinois State Geological Survey.

[15]   Hem, J. D. (1989). Study and Interpretation of the Chemical Characteristics of Natural Waters (3rd ed.). U.S. Geological Survey Water Supply Paper 2254.

[16]   Jain, C. K., Bandyopadhyay, A., & Bhadra, A. (2010). Assessment of Ground Water Quality for Drinking Purpose, District Nainital, Uttarakhand, India. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 166, 663-676.

[17]   Lloyd, B., & Helmer, R. (1991). Surveillance of Drinking Water Quality in Rural Areas (171 p.). Published for WHO/UNEP, Harlow: Longmans Scientific and Technical.

[18]   Matthess, G. (1982). The Properties of Groundwater (406 p.). New York: J. Wiley.

[19]   Ojo, J. S., Olorunfemi, M. O., Aduwo, I. A., Bayode, S., Akintorinwa, O. J., Omosuyi, G. O., & Akinluyi, F. O. (2014). Assessment of Surface and Groundwater Quality of the Akure Metropolis, Southwestern Nigeria. Journal of Environment and Earth Science, 4, 19 p.

[20]   Parker, J. M., & Foster, S. S. D. (1986). Groundwater Monitoring for Early Warning of Diffuse Pollution. In D. Lemer (Ed.), Monitoring to Detect Changes in Water Quality Series (pp. 37-46). Proceedings of the Budapest Symposium, IAHS Publication No. 157, Wallingford: International Association of Hydrological Sciences.

[21]   Piper, A. M. (1944). A Graphic Procedure in the Geochemical Interpretation of Water Analysis. Transactions, American Geophysical Union, 25, 914-923.

[22]   Price, M. (1985). Introducing Groundwater (195 p). London: George Allen and Unwin.

[23]   Raju, N. J. (2012). Evaluation of Hydrogeochemical Processes in the Pleistocene Aquifers of Middle Ganga Plain, Uttar Pradesh, India. Environmental Earth Sciences, 65, 1291-1308.

[24]   Raju, N. J., Ram, P., & Dey, S. (2009). Groundwater Quality in the Lower Varuna River Basin, Varanasi District, Uttar Pradesh, India. Journal of the Geological Society of India, 7, 178-192.

[25]   Raju, N. J., Shukla, U. K., & Ram, P. (2011). Hydrogeochemistry for the Assessment of Groundwater Quality in Varanasi: A Fast-Urbanizing Center in Uttar Pradesh, India. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 173, 279-300.

[26]   Satheesh, B., Sateesh, S., Kumar, K., & Reddy, N. (2017). Assessment of Groundwater Quality for Irrigation Use and Evolution of Hydrochemeical Facies in the Yeshwanthapur Sub-Basin, Warangal Dist. IOSR Journal of Applied Geology and Geophysics, 5, 14-20.

[27]   Scalf, M. R., McNabb, J. F., Dunlap, W. F., Cosby, R. L., & Fryberger, J. (1981). Manual of Groundwater Sampling Procedures (93 p.). Worthington, OH: National Water Well Association.

[28]   Shitta, K. A. (2007). Lithostratigraphy of Nigeria—An Overview. In Proceedings, Thirty-Second Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering Stanford University (SGP-TR-183).

[29]   Siddiqui, A., Naseem, S., & Jalil, T. (2005). Groundwater Quality Assessment in and around Kalu Khuhar, Super Highway, Sindh, Pakistan. Journal of Applied Sciences, 5, 1260-1265.

[30]   Singh, S., Raju, N. J., & Ramakrishna, Ch. (2015). Evaluation of Groundwater Quality and Its Suitability for Domestic and Irrigation Use in Parts of the Chandauli-Varanasi Region, Uttar Pradesh, India. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 7, 572-587.

[31]   Srinivasamoorthy, K., Chidambaram, M., Prasanna, M. V., Vasanthavigar, M., Peter, J., & Anandhan, P. (2008). Identification of Major Sources Controlling Groundwater Chemistry from a Hard Rock Terrain—A Case Study from Mettur Taluk, Salem District, Tamilnadu, India. Journal of Earth System Sciences, 117, 49-58.

[32]   Subba Rao, N. (2017). Hydrogeology—Problems with Solutions (265 p.). Delhi: PHI Learning Private Limited.

[33]   Subba Rao, N., Prakasa Rao, J., John Devadas, D., Srinivasa Rao, K. V., Krishna, C., & Nagamalleswara Rao, B. (2002). Hydrogeochemistry and Groundwater Quality in a Developing Urban Environment of a Semi-Arid Region, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India. Journal of the Geological Society of India, 59, 159-166.

[34]   Thomson, J. A. M., & Foster, S. S. D. (1986). Effect of Urbanisation on Groundwater of Limestone Islands: An Analysis of the Bermuda Case. Journal of Institute of Water Engineering Science, 40, 527-540.

[35]   Todd, D. K. (1980). Groundwater Hydrology (2nd ed., 535 p.). New York: John Wiley.

[36]   Vasanthavigar, M., Srinivasamoorthy, K., Vijayaragavan, K., Rajiv Ganthi, R., Chidambaram, S., Anandhan, P., Mani vannan, R., & Vasudevan, S. (2010). Application of Water Quality Index for Groundwater Quality Assessment: Thirumanimuttar Sub-Basin, Tamilnadu, India. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 171, 595-609.

[37]   Wilcox, L. V. (1955). Classification and Use of Irrigation Water (Circular No. 969, p. 19). Washington DC: U.S. Geological Survey Department of Agriculture.