Back
 JWARP  Vol.11 No.8 , August 2019
Restoration of Stocks of the Sea Cucumber Holothuria fuscogilva in the Red Sea with Transplanted Wild Juveniles
Abstract: Over the last decade, holothuroid sea cucumbers in the Gulf of Aqaba of the Red Sea have been the target of continuous fishing. This has severely depleted sea cucumber stocks, especially the high-value species such as Holothuria fuscogilva. The present work demonstrates that restocking populations of H. fuscogilva that are at critically and chronically low levels by transplanting wild-captured juveniles can be effective. Juveniles were translocated from a robust population at Pharoan Island and released into two sites (Wadi Quny and Hidden Bay). Population density, growth rate and mortality at the original and two release sites were monitored for 2 yrs. The Pharoan population density was highest, with H. fuscogilva showing a strong preference for sandy habitat (21.3 - 18.4 ind./100m2), over seagrasses (3.6 - 2.5 ind./100m2) and corals (0.9 - 1.7 ind./100m2). The restocked population at Wadi Quny increased from 2.6 to 9.8 ind./100m2 from 2013-2015. In contrast, density at Hidden Bay decreased from 2.8 to only 0.1 ind./100m2 in the first year. Sea cucumbers in the restocked population at Wadi Quny had higher growth rates (0.65 - 1.29 cm/month) compared to the original population at Pharoan Island (0.21 - 0.45 cm/month), while Hidden Bay showed a negative growth rate. Mortality was low at Pharoan Island (1% - 2%) and Wadi Quny (0.5% - 0.75%), but high at Hidden Bay (49% - 100% in the first year). There was a negative relationship between mortality and size (P = 0.003). The restocking of H. fuscogilva populations using wild-captured juveniles was very successful at Wadi Quny but a failure at Hidden Bay.
Cite this paper: Hasan, M. and Johnson, K. (2019) Restoration of Stocks of the Sea Cucumber Holothuria fuscogilva in the Red Sea with Transplanted Wild Juveniles. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 11, 959-980. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2019.118057.
References

[1]   Conand, C. (1990) The Fishery Resources of Pacific Island Countries. Part 2: Holothurians. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper, No. 272.2, 141 p.

[2]   Conand, C. and Byrne, M. (1993) A Review of Recent Developments in the World Sea Cucumber Fisheries. Fish and Fisheries, 14, 34-59.

[3]   Holland, A. (1994) The Status of Global Beach-De-Mer Fisheries with Special Reference to the Solomon Islands and the Potentials of Holothurian Culture. MSc. Thesis, University of Newcastle, Newcastle.

[4]   Conand, C. (1998) Overexploitation in the Present Sea Cucumber Fisheries and Perspectives in Mariculture. In: Mooi, R. and Telford, M., Eds., Echinoderms, Balkema, San Francisco, 449-454.

[5]   Jaquemet, S. and Conand, C. (1999) The Beche-de-Mer Trade in 1995/1996 and an Assessment of Exchange between the Main World Markets. SPC Beche-de-Mer Information Bulletin, 12, 11-14.

[6]   Trianni, M.S. (2002) Summary of Data Collected from the Sea Cucumber Fishery on Rota, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. SPC Beche-de-Mer Information Bulletin, 16, 5-11.

[7]   Altamirano, M., Toral-Granda, M.V. and Cruz, E. (2004) The Application of the Adaptive Principle to the Management and Conservation of Isostichopus fuscus in the Galapagos Marine Reserve. In: Lovatelli, A., Conand, C., Purcell, C., Uthicke, S., Hamel, J.F. and Mercier, A., Eds., Advances in Sea Cucumber Aquaculture and Management, FAO, Rome, 247-257.

[8]   Conand, C. (2004) Present Status of World Sea Cucumber Resources and Utilization an International Overview. In: Lovatelli, A., Conand, C., Purcell, C., Uthicke, S., Hamel, J.F. and Mercier, A., Eds., Advances in Sea Cucumber Aquaculture and Management, FAO, Rome, 13-23.

[9]   Purcell, S. (2004) Criteria for Release Strategies and Evaluating the Restocking of Sea Cucumbers. In: Lovatelli, A., Conand, C., Purcell, C., Uthicke, S., Hamel, J.F. and Mercier, A., Eds., Advances in Sea Cucumber Aquaculture and Management, FAO, Rome, 181-191.

[10]   Bell, J. D. and Nash, W. (2004) When Should Restocking and Stock Enhancement Be Used to Manage Sea Cucumber Fisheries. In: Lovatelli, A., Conand, C., Purcell, C., Uthicke, S., Hamel, J.F. and Mercier, A., Eds., Advances in Sea Cucumber Aquaculture and Management, FAO, Rome, 173-179.

[11]   Ivy, G., Azari D. and Giraspy, B. (2006) Development of Large-Scale Hatchery Production Techniques for the Commercially Important Sea Cucumber Holothuria scabra var. versicolor (Conand, 1986) in Queensland, Australia. SPC Beche-de-Mer Information Bulletin, 24, 28-34.

[12]   Bell, J.D. (1992) An Introduction to the Potential and Problems of Enhancing Recruitment. In: Hancock, D.A., Ed., Recruitment Processes. Australian Society Fish Biology Workshop, Bureau of Rural Resources Proceeding No. 16, AGPS, Canberra, Australia, 177-182.

[13]   Purcell, S.W., Mercier, A., Conand, C., Hamel, J.F., Toral-Granda, M.V., Lovatelli, A. and Uthicke, S. (2013) Sea Cucumber Fisheries: Global Analysis of Stocks, Management Measures and Drivers of Overfishing. Fish and Fisheries, 14, 34-59.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-2979.2011.00443.x

[14]   Hair, C., Mills, D.J., Mclntyre, R. and Southgate, P.C. (2016) Optimising Methods for Community-Based Sea Cucumber Ranching: Experimental Releases of Cultured Juvenile Holothuria scabra into Seagrass Meadows in Papua New Guinea. Aquaculture Reports, 3,198-208.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aqrep.2016.03.004

[15]   Han, Q.-X., Keesing, J.K. and Liu, D.-Y. (2016) A Review of Sea Cucumber Aquaculture, Ranching, and Stock Enhancement in China. Reviews in Fisheries Science & Aquaculture, 24, 326-341.
https://doi.org/10.1080/23308249.2016.1193472

[16]   Dance, S.K., Lane, I. and Bell, J.D. (2003) Variation in Short Term Survival of Cultured Sand Fish (Holothuria scabra) Released in Mangrove-Seagrass and Coral Reef Flat Habitats in Solomon Islands. Aquaculture, 220, 495-505.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0044-8486(02)00623-3

[17]   Utter, F. (1998) Genetic Problems of Hatchery-Reared Progeny Released into the Wild, and How to Deal with Them. Bulletin of Marine Science, 65, 623-640.

[18]   Eeckhaut, I., Parmentier, E., Becker, P., da Silva, S.G. and Jangoux, M. (2004) Parasites and Biotic Diseases in Field and Cultivated Sea Cucumber. In: Lovatelli, A., Conand, C., Purcell, C., Uthicke, S., Hamel, J.F. and Mercier, A., Eds., Advances in Sea Cucumber Aquaculture and Management, FAO, Rome, 311-325.

[19]   Wang, Y.-G., Zhang, C.-Y., Rong, X.-J., Chen, J.-J. and Shi, C.-Y. (2004) Diseases of Cultured Sea Cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, in China. In: Lovatelli, A., Conand, C., Purcell, C., Uthicke, S., Hamel, J.F. and Mercier, A., Eds., Advances in Sea Cucumber Aquaculture and Management, FAO, Rome, 297-310.

[20]   Mercier, A., Battaglene, S.C. and Hamel, J.F. (2000) Settlement Preferences and Early Migration of the Tropical Sea Cucumber H. scabra. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 249, 89-110.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-0981(00)00187-8

[21]   Hamel, J.F., Conand, C., Pawson, D.L. and Mercier, A. (2001) The Sea Cucumber Holothuria scabra (Holothuroidea: Echinodermata): Its Biology and Exploitation as Beach-de-Mer. Advances in Marine Biology, 41, 129-205.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2881(01)41003-0

[22]   Weidemeyer, W.L. (1992) Feeding Behaviour of Two Tropical Holothurians Holothuria (Metriatyla) scabra and Holothuria (Halodeima) atra from Okinawa, Japan. Proceeding of the 7th International Coral Reef Symposium, Guam, 22-27 June 1992, 853-860

[23]   Head, S.M. (1987) Chapter 1—Introduction. In: Edwards, A.J. and Head, S.M., Eds., Key Environments Red Sea, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1-21.
https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-028873-4.50006-2

[24]   Nasr, D. (2015) Coral Reefs of the Red Sea with Special Reference to the Sudanese Coastal Area. In: Rasul, N. and Stewart, I., Eds., The Red Sea. Springer Earth System Sciences, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 453-469.
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-45201-1_26

[25]   Hasan, M.H. (2003) Ecology and Distribution Patterns of the Threatened Holothuroids as Correlated with Over-Fishing in the Gulf of Aqaba, Northern Red Sea, Egypt. Journal of Egyptian Academic Society of Environmental Development, 4, 101-118.

[26]   Hasan, M.H. and Hasan, Y.S. (2004) Natural Ecological Factors and Human Impacts Influencing the Spatial Distribution of Holothuroid Species in the Gulf of Aqaba. Journal of the Egyptian German Society of Zoology, 43, 287-306.

[27]   Lawrence, A.J., Ahmed, M., Hanafy, M., Gabr, H., Ibrahim, A. and Gab-Alla, F.A. (2005) Status of the Sea Cucumber Fishery in the Red Sea—The Egyptian Experience. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper, 79-90.

[28]   Shelley, C. (1981) Aspects of the Distribution, Reproduction, Growth and Fishery Potential of Holothurians in the Papuan Coastal Lagoon. MSc Thesis, University of Papua New Guinea, Port Moresby.

[29]   Bungitak, J. and Lindsay, S. (2004) Marine Resources Survey and Assessment of Jaluit Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. SPC Beche-de-Mer Information Bulletin, 19, 31-38.

[30]   Liu, X.Y., Zhu, G.H., Zhao, Q., Wang, L. and Gu, B.X. (2004) Studies on Hatchery Techniques of the Sea Cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus. In: Lovatelli, A., Conand, C., Purcell, C., Uthicke, S., Hamel, J.F. and Mercier, A., Eds., Advances in Sea Cucumber Aquaculture and Management, FAO, Rome, 287-295.

[31]   R Core Team (2013) R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria.
https://www.R-project.org/

[32]   Underwood, A.J. (1991) Beyond BACI: Experimental Designs for Detecting Human Environmental Impacts on Temporal Variation in Natural Populations. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 42, 569-587.
https://doi.org/10.1071/MF9910569

[33]   Underwood, A.J. (1992) Beyond BACI: The Detection of Environmental Impacts on Populations in the Real but Variable, World. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 161, 145-178

[34]   Hasan, M.H. and Abd El-Rady, S.E.-D.A. (2012) The Effect of Fishing Pressure on the Ecology of Sea Cucumber Populations in the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. SPC Beche-de-Mer Information Bulletin, 32, 53-59.

[35]   Skewes, T., Dennis, D. and Burridge, C. (2000) Survey of Holothuria scabra (Sandfish) on Warrior Reef, Torres Strait. CSIRO Division of Marine Research Final Report.

[36]   Purcell, S., Gardener, D. and Bell, J. (2002) Developing Optimal Strategies for Restocking Sand Fish: A Collaborative Project in New Caledonia. SPC Beche-de-Mer Information Bulletin, 16, 2-4.

[37]   Bruckner, A.W., Johnson, K.A. and Field, J.D. (2003) Conservation Strategies for Sea Cucumbers. Can a CITES Appendix II Listing Promote Sustainable International Trade? SPC Beche-de-Mer Information Bulletin, 18, 24-33.

[38]   Lokani, P. (1995) Fishery Dynamics, Ecology and Management of Beche-de-Mer at the Warrior Reef, Torres Strait Protected Zone, Papua New Guinea. MSc Thesis, James Cook University of North Queensland.

[39]   Roberts, D. (1979) Deposit-Feeding Mechanisms and Resource Partitioning in Tropical Holothurians. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 37, 43-56.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-0981(79)90025-X

[40]   Mercier, A, Battaglene, S.C. and Hamel, J.F. (1999) Daily Burrowing Cycle and Feeding Activity of Juvenile Sea Cucumber H. scabra in Response to Environmental Factors. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 239, 125-156.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-0981(99)00034-9

[41]   Jontila, J.B.S., Balisco, R.A.T. and Matillano, J.A. (2014) The Sea Cucumbers (Holothuroidea) of Palawan, Philippines. AACL Bioflux, 7, 194-206.

[42]   Guille, A. and Ribes, S. (1981) Echinoderms associes aux Scleractinaires d’un recif grangeant de l’ile de la Reunion (Ocean Indian). Bulletin de Musum de Natural History National Paris, 3, 73-92.

[43]   Mezali, K. (2001) Abundance, Dispersion and Microdistribution of Aspidochirotid Holothurian (Holothuroidea: Echinodermata) in the Pasidonia oceanica Meadow of the Sidi Fredj Peninsula (Algeria). 6th European Congress on Echinoderms, Banyuls, France, 3-7 September 2001, 24.

[44]   Price, A.R.G. (1982) Echinoderms of Saudi Arabia. Comparison between Echinoderm Faunas of Arabian Gulf, SE-Arabia, Red Sea and Gulfs of Aqaba and Suez. Fauna of Saudi Arabia, 4, 3-21.

[45]   Preston, G.L. and Lokani, P. (1990) Report of a Survey of the Sea Cucumber Resources of Ha’apai, Tonga. June 1990, Inshore Fisheries Research Project, Country Assignment Report, SPC, New Caledonia, 17.

[46]   Lokani, P., Matoto, S.V. and Ledua, E. (1996) Report of a Survey of Sea Cucumber Resources at Ha’apai, Tonga. May-June 1996, South Pacific Community, Noumea, New Caledonia, 13.

[47]   Chang. Y.-Q., Yu, C.-Q. and Song, X. (2004) Pond Culture of Sea Cucumbers, Apostichopus japonicus, in Dilan. In: Lovatelli, A., Conand, C., Purcell, S., Uthicke, S., Hamel, J.F. and Mercier, A., Eds., Advances in Sea Cucumber Aquaculture and Management, FAO, Rome, 269-272.

[48]   Eriksson, H., Jamon, A. and Wickel, J. (2012) Observations on Habitat Utilization by the Sea Cucumber Stichopus chloronotus. SPC Beche-de-Mer Information Bulletin, 32, 39-42.

[49]   Eriksson, H., Byrne, M. and de la Torre-Castro, M. (2012) Sea Cucumber (Aspidochirotida) Community, Distribution and Habitat Utilization on the Reefs of Mayotte, Western Indian Ocean. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 452, 159-170.
https://doi.org/10.3354/meps09665

[50]   Slater, M.J. and Jeffs, A.G. (2010) Do Benthic Sediment Characteristics Explain the Distribution of Juveniles of the Deposit-Feeding Sea Cucumber Australostichopus mollis? Journal of Sea Research, 64, 241-249.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seares.2010.03.005

[51]   Jean Beth, S.J., Rodulf, A.T.B. and Glesselle, T.B. (2017) Species Composition, Density and Distribution of Sea Cucumbers (Holothuroidea) at Arreceffi Island, Honda Bay, Palawan, Philippines. SPC Beche-de-Mer Information Bulletin, 37, 21-29.

[52]   Weidemeyer, W.L. (1994) Biology of Small Juveniles of the Holothurian Actinopyga echinites Growth, Mortality and Habitat Preferences. Marine Biology, 120, 81-93.

[53]   Chen, J. (2003) Overview of Sea Cucumber Farming and Sea Ranching Practices in China. SPC Beche-de-Mer Information Bulletin, 18, 18-23.

[54]   Massin, C. and Doumen, C. (1986) Distribution and Feeding of Epibenthic Holothuroids on the Reef Flat of Lang Island (Papua New Guinea). Marine Ecology Progress Series, 31, 185-195.
https://doi.org/10.3354/meps031185

[55]   Kerr, M.A., Stoffel, E.M. and Yoon, L.R. (1993) Abundance and Distribution of Holothuroids (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) on a Windward and Leeward Fringing Coral Reef, Guam, Mariana Islands. Bulletin of Marine Science, 52, 780-789.

[56]   Dissanayake, D.C.T. and Stefansson, G. (2012) Habitat Preference of Sea Cucumbers: Holothuria atra and Holothuria edulis in the Coastal Waters of Sri Lanka. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 92, 581-590.
https://doi.org/10.1017/S0025315411000051

[57]   Battaglene, S.C. and Bell, J.D. (1999) Potential of the Tropical Indo-Pacific Sea Cucumber, Holothuria scabra, for Stock Enhancement. In: Mosksness, E.S., et al., Eds., Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium on Stock Enhancement and Sea Ranching, Blackwell Science, Bergen, Norway, 478-490.

[58]   Shiell, G. (2004) Field Observations of Juvenile Sea Cucumbers. SPC Beche-de-Mer Information Bulletin, 20, 6-11.

[59]   Asha, P.S., Diwakar, K., Santhanavalli, G. and Manisseri, M.K. (2015) Comparative Distribution and Habitat Preference of the Sea Cucumber Holothuria atra Jaeger at Protected and Unprotected Sites in Thoothukudi Region of Gulf of Mannar, South-East Coast of India. Indian Journal of Fisheries, 62, 52-57.

[60]   Bell, J.D., Purcell, S.W. and Nash, W.J. (2008) Restoring Small-Scale Fisheries for Tropical Sea Cucumbers. Ocean & Coastal Management, 51, 589-593.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2008.06.011

 
 
Top