GEP  Vol.7 No.8 , August 2019
Evaluation of the Expansive Esna Shale and Its Role in the Deterioration of Heritage Buildings at West Bank of Luxor
The heritage buildings at the west bank of Luxor were affected by expansive Esna shale differentially from site to others. The role of expansive Esna shale was evaluated by using X-ray diffraction spectra (particle size, strain), X-ray fluorescence, basic soil properties test, swelling test, soil classification, and unconfined compression test. Three different samples were examined to determine the expansive role in the deterioration of heritage sites. The expansive is high, according to: (a) Soil classification based on plasticity index, (b) Classification chart based on the liquid limit and plastic index, (c) Classification chart based on clay content and activity, (d) Soil classification, and (e) Swelling pressure which determines the safety factor. In addition, expansive classification assesses that Esna shale Formation is one of environmental hazards characterized by damage role near Nile flood and irrigation area and characterized by deterioration role in heritage sites far from Nile flood and irrigation area. This paper refers to evaluation as a main process of integrated conservation approach.
Cite this paper: Gelany, A. , Zeid, M. , El-Sadek, M. and Mansour, A. (2019) Evaluation of the Expansive Esna Shale and Its Role in the Deterioration of Heritage Buildings at West Bank of Luxor. Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection, 7, 24-37. doi: 10.4236/gep.2019.78002.

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