Back
 JAMP  Vol.7 No.8 , August 2019
Space Magnetism and Superconductivity: Diamagnetic Expulsion, Meissner Effect, Magnetic Pressure and Quantum Trapping Lead to the Origin and Stability of the Saturn Rings
Abstract:
Existence of the magnetic field of Saturn and the temperature around 70 - 100 K nearby of it bring us to the idea of diamagnetism and superconductivity of the rings particles. The rings could emerge from the icy particles moving on chaotic orbits around Saturn within protoplanetary cloud. After appearance of the magnetic field of Saturn all chaotic orbits of icy particles start to shift to the magnetic equator plane, where there is a minimum of the particles magnetic energy, due to diamagnetic force of expulsion like Meissner phenomenon. Each particle comes to the stable position preventing its own horizontal and vertical shift. Particles are locked within three-dimensional magnetic well due to Abrikosov quantum vortex phenomenon for superconductor. This mechanism is valid and it works even particles have a small fraction of superconductor. Final picture is similar to the picture of iron particles forms the same shape around a magnet on laboratory table. Any other phenomena like gravity resonances, dusty plasma and others may bring some peculiarities to the final picture of the rings. It follows that magnetic field of Saturn and low temperature around of it are the main reason for the rings origin and the rings is product of the early time of the magnetic field of Saturn appearance. Additional matter to the rings also may come from the frozen water particles generated from the Saturn sputniks geysers due to magnetic coupling between planet and satellites. The data of Cassini mission to Saturn rings are conforming suggested theory of their origin and existence.
Cite this paper: Tchernyi (Cherny), V. , Pospelov, A. and Kapranov, S. (2019) Space Magnetism and Superconductivity: Diamagnetic Expulsion, Meissner Effect, Magnetic Pressure and Quantum Trapping Lead to the Origin and Stability of the Saturn Rings. Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics, 7, 1625-1636. doi: 10.4236/jamp.2019.78110.
References

[1]   Estrada, P.R., Durisen, R.H. and Cuzzi, J.N. (2017) Ballistic Transport: After the Cas-sini Grand Finale, Is There a Final Consensus on Ring Origin and Age? American Ge-ophysical Union Meeting, New Orleans, 12 December 2017, Paper 298112.

[2]   Fridman, A.M. and Gor’kavyi, N.N. (1999) Physics of Planetary Rings. Springer-Verlag, New York. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-03918-2

[3]   Canup, R.M. (2010) Origin of Saturn’s Rings and Inner Moons by Mass Removal from a Lost Titan-Sized Satellite. Nature, 468, 943-946. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature09661

[4]   Safronov, V.S. (1972) Evolution of the Protoplanetary Cloud and Formation of the Earth and the Planets. Nauka Press, Moscow. NASA Technical Translation F-677.

[5]   Bednorz, J.G. and Müller, K.A. (1986) Possible High Tc Superconductivity in the Ba-La-Cu-O System. Zeitschrift für Physik B, 64, 189-193. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01303701

[6]   Babushkina, G.V., Kobelev, L.Ya., Yakovlev, E.N. and Babushkin, A.N. (1986) Superconductivity of Ice Under High Pressure. Physics of Solid State, 28, 3732-3734. (In Russian)

[7]   Yen, F. and Gao, T. (2015) Dielectric Anomaly in Ice near 20K; Evidence of Macroscopic Quantum Phenomena. The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, 6, 2822-2825. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.5b00797

[8]   Côté, M., Grossman, J.C., Cohen, M.L. and Louie, S.G. (1998) Electron-Phonon Interactions in Solid C36. Physical Revew Letters, 81, 697-700. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.81.697

[9]   Deutscher, G., Azoulay, M., Almog, B. and Deutscher, B. (2011) Quantum Levitation. Quantum Locking, Quantum Trapping. ASTC Conf., Maryland, 15-18 Oct. 2011. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4HHJv8lPERQ

[10]   Pospelov, A.Yu., Tchernyi, V.V. and Girich, S.V. (1998) Planet’s Rings: Super-Diamagnetic Model and New Course of Investigations. Proc. SPIE 42nd Annual meet., San Diego, CA, July 27-Aug. 1 1997, Small Spacecraft, Space Environments and Instrumentation Technologies, SPIE, 3116, 117-128. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.293330

[11]   Girich, S.V., Pospelov, A.Yu. and Tchernyi, V.V. (1998) Radar Data Explanation via Superdiamagnetic Model of the Saturn’s Rings. Annual Report of AAS, 30th Meeting Division of Planetary Science, Madison, WI, 11-16 Oct. 1998, Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, 30, 1043.

[12]   Tchernyi, V.V., et al. (1999) Are Saturn Rings Superconducting? University of Alabama, Huntsville, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville Space Physics Colloquium, 20 Aug.1999.

[13]   Tchernyi, V.V. and Pospelov, A.Yu. (2005) Possible Electromagnetic Nature of the Saturn’s Rings: Superconductivity and Magnetic Levitation. Progress in Electromagnetic Research, PIER, 52, 277-299. https://doi.org/10.2528/PIER04082801

[14]   Tchernyi, V.V. and Pospelov, A.Yu. (2007) About Hypothesis of the Superconducting Origin of the Saturn’s Rings. Astrophysics and Space Science, 307, 347-356. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10509-006-9054-7

[15]   Tchernyi, V.V. and Chensky, E.V. (2005) Electromagnetic Background for Possible Magnetic Levitation of the Superconducting Rings of Saturn. Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, 19, 1997-2006. https://doi.org/10.1163/156939305775570440

[16]   Tchernyi, V.V. and Chensky, E.V. (2005) Movements of the Protoplanetary Superconducting Particles in the Magnetic Field of Saturn Lead to the Origin of Rings. Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters-IEEE, 2, 445-446. https://doi.org/10.1109/LGRS.2005.852767

[17]   Tchernyi, V.V. (2002) Possible Superconductivity of Saturn Rings. University of Hawaii, Institute for Astronomy, Colloquia, Spring/Summer, 7 Aug. 2002.

[18]   Tchernyi (Cherny), V.V. (2009) Origin of the Saturn Rings: Electromagnetic Model of the Sombrero Rings Formation. In: Denis, J.H. and Aldridge, P.D., Eds., Space Exploration Research, Nova Science Publishers, NY, Chapter 11, 261-275.

[19]   Tchernyi, V.V. (2009) To Discovery of Initial Formation (Origin) of the Sombrero Rings of Saturn: Role of Electromagnetism. International Astronomical Union, Assembly, XXVII General Assembly, 3-14 Aug. 2009, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Abstract Book, Symposium No. 263-Icy Bodies in the Solar System, Report No. 263, 56, 63.

[20]   Tchernyi (Cherny), V.V. (2013) Could Superconductivity Contribute to the Saturn Rings Origin? Journal of Modern Physics (Special Issue on Superconducting Physics), 4, 17-23. https://doi.org/10.4236/jmp.2013.46A005

[21]   Tchernyi (Cherny), V.V. (2013) About Role of Electromagnetism to the Saturn Rings Origin—To the Unified Theory of the Planetary Rings Origin. International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 3, 412-420. https://doi.org/10.4236/ijaa.2013.34049

[22]   Tchernyi, V.V. and Pospelov, A.Yu. (2018) Superconductivity of Saturn Rings: Quantum Locking, Rings Disk Thickness and Its time Creation. Journal of Modern Physics, 9, 219-432. https://doi.org/10.4236/jmp.2018.93029

[23]   Tchernyi, V.V. and Pospelov, A.Yu. (2018) Quantum Locking and the Meissner Effect Lead to the Origin and Stability of the Saturn Rings System. International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 8, 104-120. https://doi.org/10.4236/ijaa.2018.81008

[24]   Tchernyi (Cherny), V.V., Kapranov, S.V. and Pospelov, A.Yu. (2018) Diamagnetic Expulsion as a Possible Cause of the Origin and Stability of the Saturn Rings. Physics and Astronomy International Journal, 2, 121-126. https://doi.org/10.15406/paij.2018.02.00073

[25]   Pospelov, A.Yu. and Tchernyi, V.V. (2019) Energy Gap in Saturn’s Rings. Journal of Modern Physics, 10, 477-485. https://doi.org/10.4236/jmp.2019.104033

[26]   Maeno, N. (1981) The Science of Ice. Hokkaido University Press, Sapporo.

[27]   Hedman, M.M. and Nicholson, P.D. (2016) The B-Ring’s Surface Mass Density from Hidden Density Waves: Less than Meets the Eye? Icarus, 279, 109-124. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2016.01.007

[28]   Spilker, L.J., Pilorz, S.H., Edgington, S.G., Wallis, B.D., Brooks, S.M., Pearl, J.S. and Flazar, F.M. (2005) Earth, Moon and Planets, 96, 149-163. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11038-005-9060-8

[29]   Abrikosov, A.A. (957) On the Magnetic Properties of Superconductors of the Second Group. Soviet Physics JETF, 5, 1174-1182.

[30]   Sigal, I.M. and Tzaneteas, T. (2013) On Stability of Abrikosov Lattices. 25 Aug. 2013. https://doi.org/10.1088/0951-7715/25/4/1187

[31]   Sigal, I.M. and Tzaneteas, T. (2016) On Stability of Abrikosov Vortex Lattices. 12 Aug. 2016.

[32]   Hansen, C.J., Esposito, L., Stewart, A.I.F., Colwell, J., Hendrix, A., Pryor, W., Shemansky, D. and West, R. (2006) Enceladus’ Water Vapor Plume. Science, 311, 1422-1425. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1121254

[33]   Spencer, J.R. and Nimmo, F. (2013) Enceladus: An Active Ice World in the Saturn System. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 41, 693-717. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-earth-050212-124025

[34]   Dyches, P., Brown, D., et al. (2014) Cassini Spacecraft Reveals 101 Geysers and More on Icy Saturn Moon. NASA, July 28, 2014.

[35]   NASA/JPL/Space Science Institute (2015) Jump up to: Icy Tendrils Reaching into Saturn Ring Traced to Their Source. NASA News, April 14, 2015.

[36]   NASA/JPL/Space Science Institute (2014) Jump up to: Ghostly Fingers of Enceladus. NASA News, Sept. 19, 2006.

 
 
Top