Back
 AiM  Vol.9 No.7 , July 2019
Antimicrobial Resistance Profile of Bacteria Isolated from Boreholes and Hand Dug Wells Water in Ngaoundere Municipality of Adamawa Region in Cameroon
Abstract: Uncontrolled uses of antibiotics have led to rapid evolution of antibiotic-resistance bacteria and antibiotic resistance gene transfer, especially in a pool of aquatic system where resistance, intermediate and susceptible bacteria to some antibiotics strive together. Consequently, there is a transfer of resistance genes. In this study, bacteria of the Enterobacteriaceae family and some gram positive bacteria isolated from some boreholes and hand dug wells water of public use were tested on 19 antibiotics of different classes. This was achieved through a disk diffusion technique to determine the antimicrobial resistance profile of the said bacteria, microbial resistance index of the drugs used (and their ability to produce Beta-lactamase). These isolates were shown to demonstrate a very high resistance to the drugs used in the area. The resistance was highest in Escherichia coli 1 (73.68%) and lowest in Streptococcus pneumoniae (47.82%). These isolates also indicated very high levels of multi-drug resistance. The minimum resistance index was 0.47, indicating that bacteria isolates were of fecal origin. It is evident from the present study that multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria can thrive in water as an environmental reservoir, and can therefore provide a route to multidrug-resistant pathogens to enter human and animal population.
Cite this paper: Tangwa, B. , Keubou, H. , Nfor, E. and Ngakou, A. (2019) Antimicrobial Resistance Profile of Bacteria Isolated from Boreholes and Hand Dug Wells Water in Ngaoundere Municipality of Adamawa Region in Cameroon. Advances in Microbiology, 9, 629-645. doi: 10.4236/aim.2019.97039.
References

[1]   Mlenga, D.H. (2016) Towards Community Resilience, Focus on a Rural Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene Project in Swaziland. American Journal of Rural Development, 4, 85-92.

[2]   Pan, M. and Chu, L.M. (2018) Occurrence of Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Soils from Wastewater Irrigation Areas in the Pearl River Delta Region, Southern China. Science of the Total Environment, 624, 145-152.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.12.008

[3]   Thompson, F.L., Fevers, D., Thompson, C.C., Dawyndt, P., Naser, S., Hoste, B., Munn, C.B. and Swings, J. (2005) Phylogeny and Molecular Identification of Vibrios on the Basis of Multi-Locus Sequence Analysis. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 71, 5107-5115.
https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.71.9.5107-5115.2005

[4]   Carmen, M.E.D., Patricia, T., Francisco, J.Z., Gilberto, E., Guadalupe, V.N., Maria, Q.P., Blanca, S., Maria, C.G. and Rocio, I. (2016). Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria Isolated from Surface Water in Bassaseachic Falls National Park, Mexico. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 13, 597.
https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13060597

[5]   Kandakai, O.T. and Dido, M.S. (2009) Antimicrobial Resistant Profile of Streptococcus pneumonia Isolated from the Nasopharynx of Secondary School Students in Jos-Nigeria. Annals of African Medicine, 8, 10.
https://doi.org/10.4103/1596-3519.55757

[6]   Kummerer, K. (2009) Antibiotics in the Aquatic Environment—A Review—Part II. Chemosphere, 75, 435-441.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2008.12.006

[7]   Jiang, L., Hu, X., Xu, T., Zhang, H., Sheng, D. and Yin, D. (2013) Prevalence of Antibiotic Resistance Genes and Their Relationship with Antibiotics in the Huangpu River and the Drinking Water Sources, Shanghai, China. Science of the Total Environment, 458-460, 267-272.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.04.038

[8]   Pruden, A., Pei, R., Storteboom, H. and Carlson, K.H. (2006) Antibiotic Resistance Genes as Emerging Contaminants: Studies in Northern Colorado. Environmental Science & Technology, 40, 7445-7450.
https://doi.org/10.1021/es060413l

[9]   WHO/UNICEF (2006) Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation. Meeting the MDG Drinking Water and Sanitation Target: The Urban and Rural Challenge of the Decade. World Health Organization, Geneva, 25.

[10]   Annuaire Statistique du Cameroun (2006) Institut National de la Statistique du Cameroun. Population Data Derived by Adding the Populations of Departments Belonging to Each Region. 25.

[11]   https://www.sogefi-sig.com/ressources

[12]   Eaton, Rice and Baird (2005) Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 21st Edition, American Public Health Association, Washington DC, 66.
http://trove.nla.gove.au/version/45704677

[13]   Cowan, S.T. (1985) Cowan and Steel’s Manual for Identification of Medical Bacteria. 2nd Edition, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, London, 138-139.

[14]   Quinn, P.J., Carter, M.E., Markey, B.K. and Carter, G.R. (2002) Clinical Veterinary Microbiology. Harcourt Publishers, Virginia, 331-344.

[15]   CLSI VET (2018) Performance Standard for Antimicrobial Disk and Dilution Susceptibility Tests for Bacteria Isolated from Animals. 4th Edition, 49.

[16]   Paterson, D.L. and Bonomo, R.A. (2005) Extended Spectrum β-Lactamases: A Clinical Update. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 18, 657-686.
https://doi.org/10.1128/CMR.18.4.657-686.2005

[17]   WHO (2006) Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality. 3rd Edition, WHO Press, Geneva, 398.

[18]   Asan, A., Kirgiz, T., Sen, B., Camur-Elipek, B., Guner, U. and Guher, H. (2005) Isolation, Identification and Seasonal Distribution of Airborne and Water Borne Fungi in Thermos Lake (Istanbul-Turkey). Journal of Basic Microbiology, 43, 83-95.
https://doi.org/10.1002/jobm.200390017

[19]   Apun, K., Chong, Y.L., Abdullahi, M.T. and Micky, V. (2008) Antimicrobial Susceptibilities of Escherichia coli Isolates from Food Animals and Wildlife Animals in Sarawak, East Malaysia. Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 3, 409-416.
https://doi.org/10.3923/ajava.2008.409.416

[20]   Ahmed, M.M., Rahman, M.M. and Mahbub, K.R. (2011) Characterization of Antibiotic Resistant Salmonella spp. Isolated from Chicken Eggs of Dhaka City. Journal of Scientific Research, 3, 191-196.
https://doi.org/10.3329/jsr.v3i1.6109

[21]   Schwarz, S., Cloeckaert, A., Roberts, M.C. and Aarestrup, F.M. (2006) Mechanisms and Spread of Bacterial Resistance to Antimicrobial Agents. In: Holzbauer, S. and Chiller, T., Eds., Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria of Animal Origin, ASM Press, Washington DC, 73-98.
https://doi.org/10.1128/microbiolspec.ARBA-0019-2017

[22]   Thomas, C.M. and Nielsen, K.M. (2005) Mechanisms of Barriers to Horizontal Gene Transfer between Bacteria. Nature Reviews Microbiology, 3, 711-721.
https://doi.org/10.1038/nrmicro1234

[23]   O’Neill, J. (2016) Tackling Drug-Resistant Infections Globally: Final Report and Recommendations. 12.

[24]   Zukcewicz-Sobczak, W.A. (2013) The Role of Fungi Allergic Disease. Postepy Dermatologii I Alergologii, 30, 42-45.
https://doi.org/10.5114/pdia.2013.33377

[25]   Oluyege, J.O., Dada, A.C. and Odeyemi, A.T. (2009) Incidence of Multiple Antibiotic Resistant Gram-Negative Bacteria Isolated from Surface and Underground Water Sources in South Western Region of Nigeria. Water Science & Technology, 59, 1929-1936.
https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2009.219

[26]   Hossain, M.Z., Naher, A., Hasan, P., Mozazfia, K.T., Tasnim, H., Ferdush, Z., Towhid, K.M.S. and Imran, M.A.A. (2017) Prevalent Bacteria and Their Sensitivity and Resistance Pattern to Antibiotics: A Study in Dhaka Medical College Hospital. Journal of Dhaka Medical College, 26, 52-64.
https://doi.org/10.3329/jdmc.v26i1.34002

[27]   Mahenthiralingam, E., Urban, T.A. and Goldberg, J.B. (2005) The Multifarious, Multireplicon Burkholderia cepacia Complex. Nature Reviews Microbiology, 3, 144-156.
https://doi.org/10.1038/nrmicro1085

[28]   Martinez-Murcia, A.J., Benlloch, S. and Collins, M.D. (1992) Phylogenetic Interrelationships of Members of the Genera Aeromonas and Plesiomonas as Determined by 16S Ribosomal DNA Sequencing: Lack of Congruence with Results of DNA-DNA Hybridizations. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 42, 412-421.
https://doi.org/10.1099/00207713-42-3-412

[29]   Karcic, E., Aljicevic, M., Bektas, S. and Karcic, B. (2015) Antimicrobial Susceptibility/Resistance of Streptococcus Pneumoniae. Materia Socio-Medica, 27, 180-184.
https://doi.org/10.5455/msm.2015.27.180-184

[30]   Akanbi, O.E., Njom, H.A., Fri, J., Otigbu, A.C. and Clarke, A.M. (2017) Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Recreational Waters and Beach Sand in Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 14, pii: E1001.
https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14091001

[31]   Krumperman, P.H. (1983) Multiple Antibiotic Resistance Indexing Escherichiacoli to Identify Risk Sources of Faecal Contamination of Foods. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 46, 165-170.

[32]   Tambekar, D.H., Hirulkar, N.B. and Waghmare, A.S. (2011) MAR Indexing to Discriminate the Source of Faecal Contamination in Drinking Water. Nature Environment and Pollution Technology, 4, 525-528.

[33]   Vergidis, P.I. and Falagas, M.E. (2008) Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections: The Emerging Threat and Potential Novel Treatment Options. Current Opinion in Investigational Drugs, 9, 176-183.

[34]   Shubra Poonia, T., Singh, S. and Tsering, D.C. (2014) Antibiotic Susceptibility Profile of Bacteria Isolated from Natural Sources of Water from Rural Areas of East Sikkim. Indian Journal of Community Medicine, 39, 156-160.
https://doi.org/10.4103/0970-0218.137152

[35]   Pontes, D.S., Pinheiro, F.A., Lima-Bittencourt, C.I., Guedes, R.L., Cursino, L., Barbosa, F., Santos, F.R., Charlone-Souza, E. and Nascimento, A.M.A. (2009) Multiple Antimicrobial Resistance of Gram Negative Bacteria from Natural Oligotrophic Lakes under Distinct Anthropogenic Influence in a Tropical Region. Microbial Ecology, 58, 762-772.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00248-009-9539-3

[36]   Ghafourian, S.N., Sadeghifard, S., et al. (2015) Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases: Definition, Classification and Epidemiology. Current Issues in Molecular Biology, 17, 11-21.

[37]   Adelowo, O.O., Caucci, S., Banjo, O.A., Nnanna, O.C., Awotipe, E.O., Peters, F.B., Fagade, O.E. and Berendonk, T.U. (2018) Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL)-Producing Bacteria Isolated from Hospital Wastewaters, Rivers and Aquaculture Sources in Nigeria. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 25, 2744-2755.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-0686-7

 
 
Top