AJIBM  Vol.9 No.6 , June 2019
An Analysis of the Characteristics of Maize Storage Types Used by Smallholder Producers in Developing Countries: A Case of Uganda
Smallholder maize farmers are often faced with storage challenges. In Uganda, smallholder farmers are the major producers of maize. After production, the majority sell most of the maize then later buy for consumption at higher prices. This puzzle of producing, selling and later buying for consumption is attributed to inadequate and inefficient storage and is the premise of this investigation. The knowledge of the impact of household storage and farmers’ perception in Uganda is limited. The study sought to assess whether the storage types used are associated with the smallholder farmers’ characteristics. A multi-stage random sampling procedure was used to collect cross-sectional data from 270 farmers. The region of Eastern Uganda was selected because it is the highest maize producing. Three districts were selected on the basis of being the highest, medium and lowest maize producers, respectively. The chi-square tests were used to check for the relationships between the variables measured at 95% confidence level (p < 0.05). The findings show a significant relationship of location (district), gender, length of use of a particular storage type, method of acquisition of a storage type used by smallholder maize farmers. Areas of future research and recommendations based on the study findings are presented in the conclusion section.
Cite this paper: Anthony, T. , Makombe, G. and Kele, T. (2019) An Analysis of the Characteristics of Maize Storage Types Used by Smallholder Producers in Developing Countries: A Case of Uganda. American Journal of Industrial and Business Management, 9, 1524-1555. doi: 10.4236/ajibm.2019.96101.

[1]   Abass, A.B., Ndunguru, G., Mamiro, P., Alenkhe, B., Mlingi, N. and Bekunda, M. (2014) Post-Harvest Food Losses in a Maize-Based Farming System of Semi-Arid Savannah Area of Tanzania. Journal of Stored Products Research, 57, 49-57.

[2]   Shiferaw, B., Prasanna, B.M., Hellin, J. and Bänziger, M. (2011) Crops that Feed the World 6. Past Successes and Future Challenges to the Role Played by Maize in Global Food Security. Food Security, 3, 307-327.

[3]   Omotilewa, O., Ricker-Gilbert, J., Shively, G. and Ainembabazi, H. (2016) The Effects of Risk Perceptions and Liquidity Constraints on the Storage Decisions of Maize and Legume Producers in Uganda. 2016 Annual Meeting, Boston, MA, 31 July-2 August 2016.

[4]   Onubuogu, G., Esiobu, N., Nwosu, C. and Okereke, C. (2014) Resource Use Efficiency of Smallholder Cassava Farmers in Owerri Agricultural Zone, Imo State, Nigeria. Scholarly Journal of Agricultural Science, 7, 142-152.

[5]   Kaaya, A.N., Warren, H.L., Kyamanywa, S. and Kyamuhangire, W. (2005) The Effect of Delayed Harvest on Moisture Content, Insect Damage, Moulds and Aflatoxin Contamination of Maize in Mayuge District of Uganda. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 85, 2595-2599.

[6]   Okoboi, G., Muwanga, J. and Mwebaze, T. (2012) Use of Improved Inputs and Its Effect on Maize Yield and Profit in Uganda. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development, 12, 1-14.

[7]   Sserumaga, J.P., Makumbi, D., Simyung, L., Njoroge, K., Muthomi, J.W., Asea, G., Bomet, D.K., et al. (2015) Incidence and Severity of Potentially Toxigenic Aspergillus Flavus in Maize (Zea mays L.) from Different Major Maize Growing Regions of Uganda. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 10, 1244-1250.

[8]   Ferris, R., Engoru, P., Wood, M. and Kaganzi, E. (2006) Evaluation of the Market Information Services in Uganda and Recommendations for the Next Five Years. Contract for PMA/ASPS. Danish Embassy, Kampala, Uganda.

[9]   Agona, A., Nabawanuka, J. and Muyinza, H. (2001) An Overview of Maize in Uganda. Post-Harvest Programme, NARO Uganda.

[10]   Gitonga, Z.M., De Groote, H., Kassie, M. and Tefera, T. (2013) Impact of Metal Silos on Households’ Maize Storage, Storage Losses and Food Security: An Application of a Propensity Score Matching. Food Policy, 43, 44-55.

[11]   Omotilewa, O.J., Ricker-Gilbert, J., Ainembabazi, H. and Shively, G. (2016) Impacts of Improved Storage Technology among Smallholder Farm Households in Uganda. 2016 Fifth International Conference, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 23-26 September 2016, Article ID: 246454.

[12]   Atukwase, A., Kaaya, A.N. and Muyanja, C. (2009) Factors Associated with Fumonisin Contamination of Maize in Uganda. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 89, 2393-2398.

[13]   Montalbano, P., Pietrelli, R. and Salvatici, L. (2017) Market Chain Participation and Food Security: The Case of the Ugandan Maize Farmers, No. 2/17.

[14]   Okure, D. and Ssekanyo, S. (2017) User Perception towards a Motorized Thresher (‘Kungula’) in Uganda: A Need Finding Survey. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 12, 997-1004.

[15]   Suleiman, R.A., Rosentrater, K.A. and Bern, C.J. (2013) Effects of Deterioration Parameters on Storage of Maize: A Review. Journal of Natural Sciences Research, 3, 147.

[16]   Affognon, H., Mutungi, C., Sanginga, P. and Borgemeister, C. (2015) Unpacking Postharvest Losses in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Meta-Analysis. World Development, 66, 49-68.

[17]   Thamaga-Chitja, J.M., Hendriks, S.L., Ortmann, G.F. and Green, M. (2004) Impact of Maize Storage on Rural Household Food Security in Northern Kwazulu-Natal. Journal of Family Ecology and Consumer Sciences, 32, 8-15.

[18]   Kadjo, D., Ricker-Gilbert, J. and Alexander, C. (2016) Estimating Price Discounts for Low-Quality Maize in sub-Saharan Africa: Evidence from Benin. World Development, 77, 115-128.

[19]   De Groote, H., Kimenju, S.C., Likhayo, P., Kanampiu, F., Tefera, T. and Hellin, J. (2013) Effectiveness of Hermetic Systems in Controlling Maize Storage Pests in Kenya. Journal of Stored Products Research, 53, 27-36.

[20]   Kadjo, D., Ricker-Gilbert, J., Alexander, C. and Tahirou, A. (2013) Effects of Storage Losses and Grain Management Practices on Storage: Evidence from Maize Production in Benin. Agricultural and Applied Economics Association 2013 Annual Meeting, Washington DC, 4-8 August 2013.

[21]   Shepherd, A. (2012) Grain Storage in Africa: Learning from Past Experiences. Food Chain, 2, 149-163.

[22]   Sun, D., Qiu, H., Bai, J., Liu, H., Lin, G. and Rozelle, S. (2013) Liquidity Constraints and Postharvest Selling Behavior: Evidence from China’s Maize Farmers. The Developing Economies, 51, 260-277.

[23]   Kaminski, J. and Christiaensen, L. (2014) Post-Harvest Loss in Sub-Saharan Africa—What Do Farmers Say? Global Food Security, 3, 149-158.

[24]   Fisher, M. and Carr, E.R. (2015) The Influence of Gendered Roles and Responsibilities on the Adoption of Technologies that Mitigate Drought Risk: The Case of Drought-Tolerant Maize Seed in Eastern Uganda. Global Environmental Change, 35, 82-92.

[25]   Latynskiy, E. and Berger, T. (2016) Networks of Rural Producer Organizations in Uganda: What Can be Done to Make Them Work Better? World Development, 78, 572-586.

[26]   Fafchamps, M. and Hill, R.V. (2005) Selling at the Farmgate or Traveling to Market. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 87, 717-734.

[27]   Mugisa, D.J., Katimbo, A., Sempiira, J.E. and Kisaalita, W.S. (2016) Anthropometric Characteristics of Female Smallholder Farmers of Uganda—Toward Design of Labor-Saving Tools. Applied Ergonomics, 54, 177-185.

[28]   Green, H., Broun, P., Cakmak, I., Condon, L., Fedoroff, N., Gonzalez-Valero, J., Oniang’o, R.K., et al. (2016) Planting Seeds for the Future of Food. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 96, 1409-1414.

[29]   Phiiri, G.K., Egeru, A. and Ekwamu, A. (2016) Climate Change and Agriculture Nexus in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Agonizing Reality for Smallholder Farmers. International Journal of Current Research and Review, 8, 57.

[30]   Mugabi, R. and Driscoll, R. (2016) Study of Maize Drying in Uganda Using an in-Store Dryer Weather Data Simulation Software. International Journal, 3, 18-26.

[31]   Kaleta, A. and Górnicki, K. (2013) Criteria of Determination of Safe Grain Storage Time—A Review Advances in Agrophysical Research. InTech Publisher, 295-318.

[32]   Anastassiadis, F., Feil, J.-H., Musshoff, O. and Schilling, P. (2014) Analysing Farmers’ Use of Price Hedging Instruments: An Experimental Approach. Journal of Agricultural & Food Industrial Organization, 12, 181-192.

[33]   Tefera, T., Kanampiu, F., De Groote, H., Hellin, J., Mugo, S., Kimenju, S., Banziger, M., et al. (2011) The Metal Silo: An Effective Grain Storage Technology for Reducing Post-Harvest Insect and Pathogen Losses in Maize While Improving Smallholder Farmers’ Food Security in Developing Countries. Crop Protection, 30, 240-245.

[34]   Ognakossan, K.E., Affognon, H.D., Mutungi, C.M., Sila, D.N., Midingoyi, S.K.G. and Owino, W.O. (2016) On-Farm Maize Storage Systems and Rodent Postharvest Losses in Six Maize Growing Agro-Ecological Zones of Kenya. Food Security, 8, 1169-1189.

[35]   Proctor, D. (1994) Grain Storage Techniques: Evolution and Trends in Developing Countries. Food & Agriculture Organization, Rome, Italy.

[36]   Baoua, I., Amadou, L., Ousmane, B., Baributsa, D. and Murdock, L. (2014) PICS Bags for Post-Harvest Storage of Maize Grain in West Africa. Journal of Stored Products Research, 58, 20-28.

[37]   Kaldor, N. (1939) Speculation and Economic Stability. The Review of Economic Studies, 7, 1-27.

[38]   Working, H. (1949) The Theory of Price of Storage. The American Economic Review, 39, 1254-1262.

[39]   Brennan, M.J. (1958) The Supply of Storage. The American Economic Review, 48, 50-72.

[40]   Cifarelli, G. and Paesani, P. (2012) An Assessment of the Theory of Storage: Has the Relationship between Commodity Price Volatility and Market Fundamentals Changed Over Time? Dipartimento do Scienze Economiche Universita degli Studi de Firenze Working Paper No. 12.

[41]   Gorton, G.B., Hayashi, F. and Rouwenhorst, K.G. (2012) The Fundamentals of Commodity Futures returns. Review of Finance, 17, 35-105.

[42]   Chalotra, V. (2013) Inventory Management and Small Firms Growth: An Analytical Study in Supply Chain. Vision: The Journal of Business Perspective, 17, 213-222.

[43]   Botterud, A., Kristiansen, T. and Ilic, M.D. (2010) The Relationship between Spot and Futures Prices in the Nord Pool Electricity Market. Energy Economics, 32, 967-978.

[44]   Kagoda, F., Gidoi, R. and Isabirye, B.E. (2016) Status of Maize Lethal Necrosis in Eastern Uganda. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 11, 652-660.

[45]   Midega, C.A., Murage, A.W., Pittchar, J.O. and Khan, Z.R. (2016) Managing Storage Pests of Maize: Farmers’ Knowledge, Perceptions and Practices in Western Kenya. Crop Protection, 90, 142-149.

[46]   Oo, N.P. (2016) Analysis of Risk Management Practices among Maize Based Farmers in Abia State, Nigeria. Asian Economic and Financial Review, 6, 490-498.

[47]   Omiti, J., Otieno, D., Nyanamba, T. and McCullough, E. (2009) Factors Influencing the Intensity of Market Participation by Smallholder Farmers: A Case Study of Rural and Peri-Urban Areas of Kenya. African Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, 3, 57-82.

[48]   Stephens, E.C. and Barrett, C.B. (2011) Incomplete Credit Markets and Commodity Marketing Behaviour. Journal of Agricultural Economics, 62, 1-24.