Back
 GEP  Vol.7 No.6 , June 2019
Spatial and Temporal Evolution of Low Water Flows in the Sassandra River Catchment Area in Cote d’Ivoire
Abstract: In a context of climate change and declining water resources, knowledge of low flow is essential. Present study deals with the spatial and temporal evolution of the streams low flow in Sassandra river. In the study, 12 stations of the Sassandra sub-basins (Sassandra, N’zo, Lobo, and Davo) were selected according to the availability and quality of long-term data. Annual, monthly and daily low flow data from twelve hydrological stations of the Sassandra watershed were used and cover the period from 1970 to 2015. The methodology used is concerned with extracting the low flow data and analyzing and evaluating the trends (Mann-Kendall) and change-point (cumulate sum) of low flow data. Statistical tests are applied to the mean and variance of the low-flow series. The results of the statistical tests show more trends and change points on the mean than on the variance. Significant trends show an increase in low flow waters. The significant change point detected by the cumulative sums test generally occurs between 1990-2007. In addition, tributaries are more affected by significant trends and change point detection than Sassandra river.
Cite this paper: Anouman, D. , N’go, Y. , Soro, G. and Bi, T. (2019) Spatial and Temporal Evolution of Low Water Flows in the Sassandra River Catchment Area in Cote d’Ivoire. Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection, 7, 184-202. doi: 10.4236/gep.2019.76015.
References

[1]   Amogu, O., Descroix, L., Yéro, K. S., Le Breton, E., Mamadou, I., Ali, A., Vischel, T. et al. (2010). Increasing River Flows in the Sahel? Water, 2, 170-199.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w2020170

[2]   Amogu, O., Esteves, M., Vandervaere, J.-P., Malam Abdou, M., Panthou, G., Rajot, J.-L., Souley Yéro, K. et al. (2015). Runoff Evolution Due to Land-Use Change in a Small Sahelian Catchment. Hydrology Sciences Journal, 60, 78-95.
https://doi.org/10.1080/02626667.2014.885654

[3]   Assefa, K. & Moges, M. A. (2018). Low Flow Trends and Frequency Analysis in the Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 10, 182-203.
https://doi.org/10.4236/jwarp.2018.102011

[4]   Benyahya, L., Daigle, A., Caissie, D., Beveridge, D., & St-Hilaire, A. (2009). Characterization of the Natural Flow Regime of Watersheds in Eastern Canada. Master, R1057.

[5]   Catalogne, C. (2006). Improvement of Predetermination Methods for Low Flow Reference Flows in Low or Ungauged Sites. Ph.D. Thesis, Grenoble: Grénoble University.

[6]   Cissé, M., Sambou, S., Dierne, Y., Diatta, C., & Bop, M. (2014). Analysis of Flow in the Senegal River Basin from 1960 to 2008. Journal of Water Science, 27, 167-187.
https://doi.org/10.7202/1025566ar

[7]   Descroix, L., Genthon, P., Peugeot, C., Mahé, G., Abdou, M. M., Vandervaere, J.-P., Mamadou, I. et al. (2015). Paradoxes et contrastes en Afrique de l’Ouest: Impacts climatiques et anthropiques sur les écoulements. Géologues, 187, 47-52.

[8]   Descroix, L., Niang, A. D., Dacosta, H., Panthou, G., & Quantin, G. (2013). Evolution of Rainy Extreme Events and Rise in Flooding in the Sahel. Climatologie, 10, 37-49.
https://doi.org/10.4267/climatologie.78

[9]   Dkengne, S. P. (2006). Modélisation et prévision des débits naturels journaliers du basin versant de la Sanaga à la station de contrôle de Songmbengue. Master, Yaoundé: Ecole Nationale Supérieure Polytechnique de Yaoundé.

[10]   Doucet-Généreux, P. L. (2015). Simulation des debits d’étiages dans un concept de changement climatique: Incertitudes lièes au choix du modèle et au critère de calage. Maitrise, Sherbrooke: Université de Sherbrooke.

[11]   Edgar, H. G. (2008). Développement d’une méthodologie hydrologique/statistique pour estimer les debits d’étiages au Québec habité. Ph.D., Quebec: Université du Quebec INRS-ETE.

[12]   Ehsanzadeh, E., & Adamowski, K. (2007). Detection of Trends in Low Flows across Canada. Canadian Water Resources Journal, 32, 251-264.
https://doi.org/10.4296/cwrj3204251

[13]   Gailliez, S. (2013). Low Flow Discharge Estimation at Ungauged Sites. Application in Walloon Region. Ph.D. Thesis, Liège: Université of Liège.

[14]   Garcia, F. (2016). Amélioration d’une modélisation hydrologique régionalisée pour estimer les statistiques d’étiage. Ph.D. Thesis, Paris: Université Pierre et Marie Curie.

[15]   Goula, B. T. A., Soro, G. E., Dao, A., Kouassi, F. W., & Srohourou, B. (2010). Frequency Analysis and New Cartography of Extremes Daily Rainfall Events in Côte d’Ivoire. Journal of Applied Sciences, 10, 1684-1694.
https://doi.org/10.3923/jas.2010.1684.1694

[16]   Hamed, K. H. (2009). Effect of Persistence on the Significance of Kendall’s Tau as a Measure of Correlation between Natural Time Series. European Physical Journal Special Topics, 174, 65-79.
https://doi.org/10.1140/epjst/e2009-01090-x

[17]   Hisdal, H., & Tallaksen, L. M. (2004). Hydrological Drought Characteristics. In L. Tallaksen, & H. A. J. Lanen (Eds.), Hydrological Drought: Processes and Estimation: Methods for Streamflow and Groundwater (pp. 139-198). Amsterdam: Elsevier.

[18]   Kendall, M. G. (1975). Rank Correlation Methods. London: Griffin.

[19]   Kouamé, Y. M. (2017). Impacts des changements climatiques et de la dynamique d’occupation du sol sur les eaux de surface dans le bassin versant de la Davo, Côte d’Ivoire. PhD Thèse, Abidjan: Université Nangui Abrogoua.

[20]   Kouassi, A. M., Karim Nassa, R. A., N’Guessan Bi, T. M., Kouamé, K. F., & Biemi, J. (2018). Caracterisation des debits d’étiage dans un context de changements climatiques: Cas du basin versant du N’zi (Côte d’Ivoire). Agronomie Africaine, 3, 215-223.

[21]   Kouassi, A. M., Kouamé, K. F., Koffi, Y. B., Djê, K. B., Paturel, J. E., & Oulare, S. (2010). Analysis of Climate Variability and of Its Influences on Seasonal Rainfall Regimes in West Africa: Case of the N’zi (Bandama) Watershed in Ivory Coast. European Journal of Geography, 513.

[22]   Lang, C. (2007). Etiages et tarissements: Vers quelles modélisations? L’approche conceptuelle et l’analyse statistique en réponse à la diversité spatiale des écoulements en étiage des cours d’eau de l’Est français. Ph.D. Thesis, Metz: Université de Metz.

[23]   Lang, C. (2011). Low Flows: Hydrological Aspects, Statistical Definition and Regulatory Framework. Cybergeo: European Journal of Geography, Environment, Nature, Paysage, 571.

[24]   Mekhloufi, N. (2014). Prédetermination et prévision des étiages des oueds de l’Algérie septentrionale. Master, Algerie.

[25]   N’go, Y. A., Ama-Abina, J. T., Kouadio, A. Z., Kouassi, H. Z., & Kouassi, K. H. (2013). Environ-Mental Change in Agricultural Land in Southwest Côte d’Ivoire: Driving Forces and Impacts. Journal of Environmental Protection, 4, 1373-1382.
https://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2013.412158

[26]   Nicole, P., Perrin, C., Andreassian, V., Augeard, D., Besson, F., Carroget, A., Francois, D., LE Lay, M., Regimbeau, F., & Thiery, D. (2015). Prévoir les étiages: Que peut-on attendre des modèles hydrologiques. Rapport de l’office Nationale de l’Eau et des Milieux Aquatiques.

[27]   Panthou, G., Vischel, T., & Lebel, T. (2014). Recent Trends in the Regime of Extreme Rainfall in the Central Sahel. International Journal Climatology, 34, 3998-4006.
https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.3984

[28]   Pushpalatha, R., Perrin, C., Moine, N. L., & Andreassian, V. (2012). A Review of Efficiency Criteria Suitable for Evaluating Low-Flow Simulations. Journal of Hydrology, 420, 171-182.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2011.11.055

[29]   Sighomnou, D., Descroix, L., Genthon, P., Mahé, G., Moussa, I. B., Gautier, E., Mamadou, I. et al. (2013). The Niger River Niamey Flood of 2012: The Paroxysm of the Sahelian Paradox? Sécheresse.

[30]   Smakhtin, V. U. (2001). Low Flow Hydrology: A Review. Journal of hydrology, 240, 147-186.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-1694(00)00340-1

[31]   Temesgen, E., Meseret, B. A., Adugnaw, T., Debebe, L. Y., Azalu, A. G., Seifu, A. T., Mengiste, A. M., Fasikaw, A. Z., Mamaru, A. M., & Tammo, S. (2014). Biohydrology of Low Flows in the Humid Ethiopian Highlands: The Gilgel Abay Catchment. Biologia, 69, 1502-1509.
https://doi.org/10.2478/s11756-014-0462-9

[32]   Thomas, D. E., Venkataraman, K., Chraibi, V., & Kannan, N. (2019). Hydrologic Trends in the Upper Nueces River Basin of Texas—Implications for Water Resource Management and Ecological Heath. Hydrology, 6, 20.
https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology6010020

[33]   Traoré, A., Soro, G., Kouadio, K. E., Bamba, S. B., Oga, M. S., Soro, N., & Biemi, J. (2012). Evaluation des paramètres physiques, chimiques et bactériologiques des eaux d’une lagune tropicale en période d’étiage: La lagune Aghien (Cote d’Ivoire). International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences, 6, 7048-7058.
https://doi.org/10.4314/ijbcs.v6i6.40

[34]   Wald, A., & Wolfowitz, J. (1943). An Exact Test for Randomness in the Non-Parametric Case Based on Serial Correlation. Annals of Mathematical Statistics, 14, 378-388.
https://doi.org/10.1214/aoms/1177731358

[35]   WMO World Meteorological Organization (2008). Manual on Low-Flow Estimation and Prediction. 1339 Operational Hydrology.

[36]   Yao, A. B. (2015). Evaluation des potentialités en eau du Bassin versant de la Lobo en vue d’une gestion rationnelle (Centre-Ouest de la Côte d’Ivoire). Ph.D. Thesis, Abidjan: Université Nangui Abrogoua.

 
 
Top