AID  Vol.9 No.2 , June 2019
RETRACTED: Chronic Immune Activation and Sexual Exposure among HIV Serodiscordant Couples in Senegal
Abstract: Short Retraction Notice Advances in Infectious Diseases (AID) does not meet author’s publication requirements. This article has been retracted to straighten the academic record. In making this decision the Editorial Board follows COPE's Retraction Guidelines. Aim is to promote the circulation of scientific research by offering an ideal research publication platform with due consideration of internationally accepted standards on publication ethics. The Editorial Board would like to extend its sincere apologies for any inconvenience this retraction may have caused. The full retraction notice in PDF is preceding the original paper which is marked "RETRACTED".
Cite this paper:   

[1]   Dunkle, K.L., Stephenson, R., Karita, E., Chomba, E., Kayitenkore, K., Vwalika, C., et al. (2008) New Heterosexually Transmitted HIV Infections in Married or Cohabiting Couples in Urban Zambia and Rwanda: An Analysis of Survey and Clinical Data. The Lancet, 371, 2183-2191.

[2]   Chemaitelly, H., Cremin, I., Shelton, J., Hallett, T.B. and Abu-Raddad, L.J. (2012) Distinct HIV Discordancy Patterns by Epidemic Size in Stable Sexual Partnerships in Sub-Saharan Africa. Sexually Transmitted Infections, 88, 51-57.

[3]   Lawn, S.D., Butera, S.T. and Folks, T.M. (2001) Contribution of Immune Activation to the Pathogenesis and Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 14, 753-777.

[4]   Stevenson, M., Stanwick, T.L., Dempsey, M.P. and Lamonica, C.A. (1990) HIV-1 Replication Is Controlled at the Level of T Cell Activation and Proviral Integration. The EMBO Journal, 9, 1551-1560.

[5]   Stanley, S.K., Ostrowski, M.A., Justement, J.S., Gantt, K., Hedayati, S., Mannix, M., et al. (1996) Effect of Immunization with a Common Recall Antigen on Viral Expression in Patients Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1. The New England Journal of Medicine, 334, 1222-1230.

[6]   Shapira-Nahor, O., Kalinkovich, A., Weisman, Z., Greenberg, Z., Nahmias, J., Shapiro, M., et al. (1998) Increased Susceptibility to HIV-1 Infection of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells from Chronically Immune-Activated Individuals. AIDS, 12, 1731-1733.

[7]   Hsu, D.C. and Sereti, I. (2014) Chronic Immune Activation in HIV. In: Hope, T.J., Stevenson, M. and Richman, D., Eds., Encyclopedia of AIDS, Springer, New York, 1-10.

[8]   Siewe, B. and Landay, A. (2015) Cellular and Soluble Immune Activation Markers in HIV-Infected Subjects. In: Hope, T.J., Stevenson, M. and Richman, D., Eds., Encyclopedia of AIDS, Springer, New York, 1-8.

[9]   Sereti, I. and Altfeld, M. (2016) Immune Activation and HIV: An Enduring Relationship. Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS, 11, 129-130.

[10]   Utay, N.S. and Hunt, P.W. (2016) Role of Immune Activation in Progression to AIDS. Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS, 11, 131-137.

[11]   Biasin, M., Caputo, S.L., Speciale, L., Colombo, F., Racioppi, L., Zagliani, A., et al. (2000) Mucosal and Systemic Immune Activation Is Present in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Exposed Seronegative Women. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 182, 1365-1374.

[12]   Suy, A., Castro, P., Nomdedeu, M., García, F., López, A., Fumero, E., et al. (2007) Immunological Profile of Heterosexual Highly HIV-Exposed Uninfected Individuals: Predominant Role of CD4 and CD8 T-Cell Activation. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 196, 1191-1201.

[13]   Prodger, J.L., Hirbod, T., Kigozi, G., Nalugoda, F., Reynolds, S.J., Galiwango, R., et al. (2014) Immune Correlates of HIV Exposure without Infection in Foreskins of Men from Rakai, Uganda. Mucosal Immunology, 7, 634-644.

[14]   Restrepo, C., Rallón, N.I., del Romero, J., Rodríguez, C., Hernando, V., López, M., et al. (2010) Low-Level Exposure to HIV Induces Virus-Specific T Cell Responses and Immune Activation in Exposed HIV-Seronegative Individuals. The Journal of Immunology, 185, 982-989.

[15]   Kebba, A., Kaleebu, P., Serwanga, J., Rowland, S., Yirrell, D., Downing, R., et al. (2004) HIV Type 1 Antigen-Responsive CD4+ T-Lymphocytes in Exposed Yet HIV Type 1 Seronegative Ugandans. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 20, 67-75.

[16]   Tran, H.K., Chartier, L., Troung, L.X., Nguyen, N.N., Fontanet, A., Barré-Sinoussi, F.E., et al. (2006) Systemic Immune Activation in HIV-1-Exposed Uninfected Vietnamese Intravascular Drug Users. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 22, 255-261.

[17]   Koning, F.A., Otto, S.A., Hazenberg, M.D., Dekker, L., Prins, M., Miedema, F., et al. (2005) Low-Level CD4+ T Cell Activation Is Associated with Low Susceptibility to HIV-1 Infection. The Journal of Immunology, 175, 6117-6122.

[18]   Jennes, W., Sawadogo, S., Koblavi-Dème, S., Vuylsteke, B., Maurice, C., Roels, T.H., et al. (2003) Cellular Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Protective Factors: A Comparison of HIV-Exposed Seronegative Female Sex Workers and Female Blood Donors in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 187, 206-214.

[19]   Palmer, C.D., Tomassilli, J., Sirignano, M., Romero-Tejeda, M., Arnold, K.B., Che, D., et al. (2014) Enhanced Immune Activation Linked to Endotoxemia in HIV-1 Seronegative MSM. AIDS, 28, 2162-2166.

[20]   Card, C.M., McLaren, P.J., Wachihi, C., Kimani, J., Plummer, F.A. and Fowke, K.R. (2009) Decreased Immune Activation in Resistance to HIV-1 Infection Is Associated with an Elevated Frequency of CD4(+)CD25(+)FOXP3(+) Regulatory T Cells. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 199, 1318-1322.

[21]   Bégaud, E., Chartier, L., Marechal, V., Ipero, J., Léal, J., Versmisse, P., et al. (2006) Reduced CD4 T Cell Activation and in Vitro Susceptibility to HIV-1 Infection in Exposed Uninfected Central Africans. Retrovirology, 3, 35.

[22]   Camara, M., Dieye, T.N., Seydi, M., Diallo, A.A., Fall, M., Diaw, P.A., et al. (2010) Low-Level CD4+ T Cell Activation in HIV-Exposed Seronegative Subjects: Influence of Gender and Condom Use. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 201, 835-842.

[23]   Jennes, W., Evertse, D., Borget, M.Y., Vuylsteke, B., Maurice, C., Nkengasong, J.N., et al. (2006) Suppressed Cellular Alloimmune Responses in HIV-Exposed Seronegative Female Sex Workers. Clinical & Experimental Immunology, 143, 435-444.

[24]   Songok, E.M., Luo, M., Liang, B., Mclaren, P., Kaefer, N., Apidi, W., et al. (2012) Microarray Analysis of HIV Resistant Female Sex Workers Reveal a Gene Expression Signature Pattern Reminiscent of a Lowered Immune Activation State. PLoS ONE, 7, e30048.

[25]   McLaren, P.J., Ball, T.B., Wachihi, C., Jaoko, W., Kelvin, D.J., Danesh, A., et al. (2010) HIV-Exposed Seronegative Commercial Sex Workers Show a Quiescent Phenotype in the CD4+ T Cell Compartment and Reduced Expression of HIV-Dependent Host Factors. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 202, S339-S344.

[26]   National Agency of Statistics and Demography of Senegal (ANSD) (2012) Multiple Indicator Demographic and Health Surveys in Senegal (EDS-MICS) 2010-2011. Dakar.

[27]   MSM (2014) Report Combined Survey of Men Who Have Sex with Men.

[28]   Wade, A.S., Larmarange, J., Diop, A.K., Diop, O., Gueye, K., Marra, A., et al. (2010) Reduction in Risk-Taking Behaviors among MSM in Senegal between 2004 and 2007 and Prevalence of HIV and Other STIs. ELIHoS Project, ANRS 12139. AIDS Care, 22, 409-414.

[29]   Leprêtre, A., Ba, I., Lacombe, K., Maynart, M., Toufik, A., Ndiaye, O., et al. (2015) Prevalence and Behavioural Risks for HIV and HCV Infections in a Population of Drug Users of Dakar, Senegal: The ANRS 12243 UDSEN Study. Journal of the International AIDS Society, 18, 19888.

[30]   Who International Laboratory for Biological Standards (1996) The International Standard for Beta 2 Microglobulin. WHO, Medicine and Healthcare Products Regalatory Agency, Geneva.

[31]   Forman, D.T. (1987) Methods in Clinical Chemistry.

[32]   Cohen, C.R., Moscicki, A.B., Scott, M.E., Ma, Y., Shiboski, S., Bukusi, E., et al. (2010) Increased Levels of Immune Activation in the Genital Tract of Healthy Young Women from Sub-Saharan Africa. AIDS, 24, 2069-2074.

[33]   Abdulhaqq, S.A., Zorrilla, C., Kang, G., Yin, X., Tamayo, V., Seaton, K.E., et al. (2016) HIV-1-Negative Female Sex Workers Sustain High Cervical IFNε, Low Immune Activation, and Low Expression of HIV-1-Required Host Genes. Mucosal Immunology, 9, 1027-1038.

[34]   Card, C.M., Ball, T.B. and Fowke, K.R. (2013) Immune Quiescence: A Model of Protection against HIV Infection. Retrovirology, 10, 141.

[35]   Fulcher, J.A., Romas, L., Hoffman, J.C., Elliott, J., Saunders, T., Burgener, A.D., et al. (2017) Highly Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Exposed Seronegative Men Have Lower Mucosal Innate Immune Reactivity. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 33, 788-795.

[36]   Rowland-Jones, S., Sutton, J., Ariyoshi, K., Dong, T., Gotch, F., McAdam, S., et al. (1995) HIV-Specific Cytotoxic T-Cells in HIV-Exposed But Uninfected Gambian Women. Nature Medicine, 1, 59-64.

[37]   Erickson, A.L., Willberg, C.B., McMahan, V., Liu, A., Buchbinder, S.P., Grohskopf, L.A., et al. (2008) Potentially Exposed But Uninfected Individuals Produce Cytotoxic and Polyfunctional Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Specific CD8(+) T-Cell Responses Which Can Be Defined to the Epitope Level. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, 15, 1745-1748.

[38]   Pedraza, M.A., del Romero, J., Roldán, F., García, S., Ayerbe, M.C., Noriega, A.R., et al. (1999) Heterosexual Transmission of HIV-1 Is Associated with High Plasma Viral Load Levels and a Positive Viral Isolation in the Infected Partner. JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 21, 120-125.