CE  Vol.10 No.6 , June 2019
The Inclusion of People with Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Field of Vocational Education—Case IFAC—Campus Rio Branco
ABSTRACT
Inclusive education has gained in the past 30 years considerable legal advances that bring special schools to all school units and the urgent need for access, reception and interaction with the disabled. This literature review article aims to clarify the first steps of the inclusion of students with Autism Spectrum Disorder—TEA. Besides the authors of the references, of the inclusive laws, with the essential participation of families, recognize the procedural facet of educational inclusion and the good challenges to be followed, either through teaching procedures, the integrality of a community and participatory curriculum, and finally, completeness and inclusion.

1. Introduction

In school institutions daily we live with the unexpected, sometimes the surprise is always related to the behavioral aspects of the students, who find in the school the place to express all their emotions, both cognitive and social. But when we come across people who deserve the same opportunity and for the absence of the State or a blunter public policy, whether you want to or not, you submit the educators the reflections. Writing about inclusion, in particular, for those who manifest autistic spectrum disorder-ADS, has broken many orthodox thoughts. In our country, the picture is presented in a similar way to the rest of the world, that is, the concern with people with ASD is still incipient (Guimarães & Guimarães, 2015) .

The problem of the inclusion of the autistic goes through a procedural act. The school is not just about the sciences or the world of work. The school and its education allows, if allowed, to improve the invisible characteristics: affection, cordiality, integration in the perspective of Gramsci (Gramsci, 1948, in Manwakes, 1977 ).

The inclusion already rests in the legal order, now needs actions of educators, because we know that despite all the guarantees provided by law, the person with disabilities continues to experience exclusion and suffer prejudice.

The guaranteed inclusion in law should now transact the educational barriers. Education and its school routine need to incorporate inclusive behaviors; with pedagogical practices and an integrated curriculum to pursue these guidelines the school involvement must be complete; the technicians, professors and managers do not make inclusion, with Solitary acts.

The situations require a complete reception and the actions carved in the objectives must be based on the act of enrollment, the inclusion of parents, parent-school-faculty relationship and collective pedagogical planning for study adaptations, the result of a management Participatory democracy.

In this sense, is it possible to affirm that the inclusion is full in the Federal Institute of Acre-IFAC? Especially for those affected by the ASD. Thus, we seek guidelines for a student inclusion process with ASD.

The direction of research efforts in an area on which little is published, caused the research to assume exploratory characteristics and concomitantly qualitative (Hair et al., 2005) ; subsequently, the exploratory character becomes more evident, for the purpose of providing greater familiarity with the theme addressed, with a view to making it more explicit (Gil, 2002) .

In the research, we aim to focus on the Rio Branco campus of IFAC, seeking institutional partnerships with the intention of inclusion, under a collective perspective of work, encompassing many social actors for the consolidation of fact and right of inclusion of ASD.

2. Inclusive Education

Inclusive education is born out of the appeals of families and the advances of third generation rights, also associated with the international treaties of which Brazil is a signatory. Previously, the educational institutions had a welfare nature, that is, caring for and protecting people with disabilities, who were eventually rejected and segregated. Today, studies in special institutions have been reneged, especially in the years 80, with the advent of the Magma Charter. Highlighting the first discussions of public policies for inclusive education, it is notorious in art. 205, the impressions of the changes to an education for all, “guaranteeing the full development of the person, without prejudice of origin, race, color, sex, age or any other forms of discrimination”. (Brazil, 2012: p. 136)

It is worth noting that:

In inclusive school, all persons with special needs and learning disabilities are entitled to schooling, as close as possible to normal. Its main objective is to welcome everyone who presents some diversity, so we are talking about a society of Rights for All. (Jesus, 2005: p. 14)

According to Mazzotta and D’antino (2011) , school inclusion must respect and reaffirm equal rights and ensure school education for all. The enrollment of the student under conditions of inclusion and their permanence should guarantee conditions for schooling considering support and specialized services for the students.

The incitement of inclusion corresponds to solidarity measures, the new understanding of education in a full way, we can say that a conglomerate of actions, from the ordinance, the suppliers of meals, to the pedagogical planning, production of materials, professors, managers and technicians.

Imagining an altruistic, disinterested, humanist school has a direct confrontation with other interests, which end up slowing the cognitive transformations of many educators and institutional leaders, so Silva (2009) , makes the following allusion:

[…] By prioritizing the economic criteria for assigning quality to education, governments and managers disregard the limits and imperfections generated by the market and their inability to correct social issues, which are usually aggravated when left to the mercy of Interests of financial capital and entrepreneurs. The social quality in education is not restricted to mathematical formulas, nor to results established a priori to decontextualized linear measures (Silva, 2009: p. 223) .

The inclusion is not full, it is procedural, under construction, however, the number of students with ASD increases and the institutions are unprepared to receive them, which leads to discrimination, exclusion, the present project has as scope to achieve the endorsed in law, Because the objective inclusion is in an equal manner for the most distinguished people “structuring to meet the needs of each citizen, of the majorities to the minorities, of the privileged to the marginalized” (Werneck, 2015: p. 108) .

It is perceived that there is a need for more knowledge to interact with each other, there is an inclusion in the law and another in the institutions, apparently embryonic, incipient, that stimulates and contributes to the most diverse concerns, this new conjuncture requires new practices, in this environment, the most uncomfortable are the professors, because the literature preaches how many feel unprepared to minister their classes with students with ASD (Ferreira, 2017) .

3. Autistic Spectrum Disorder—ASD

In the TWENTIETH century, the mid-40, Leo Kanner, Austrian psychiatrist, initiated a series of studies and researches with children who presented a behavior that had been considered strange and peculiar, allied to a difficulty in establishing interpersonal relationships, with symptoms and stereotypes. Its importance in the studies revealed distinctions between the autistic phenomenon and schizophrenia.

The etymological concept, “autism is a Greek word (autós), which means by itself is a term used to denominate human behaviors that centralize themselves, focused on the individual,” according to Orrú (2012) .

It is believed that in Brazil, according to information from the Autism Project, of the Psychiatric Institute of the Hospital das Clínicas, of the Paulista School of Medicine (UNIFESP) (Mercadante, 2010) , there were approximately 2 (two) million cases of autism.

The literature indicates that the brevity of the diagnosis contributes considerably to the evolution of the individual, since there is no cure, the diagnosis is fundamental for the initiation of treatment.

In autistic individuals, there is a common presence of comorbidity, that is, the existence of two or more diseases, which results in specific drugs and specialized medical care, which sometimes delays by tracing a diagnosis before 3 years of life, in this understanding Contributes Steiner (2002) .

There are several atypical aspects of autism, identified in descriptions that cover their clinical and neurological characteristics, electroencephalographic, neuroanatomical, cytogenetic or biochemical alterations; Such researches, however, analyze these issues in isolation or associated only part of them. Due to the different diagnostic instruments, the diversity of complementary exams performed and the possibility of association with other disorders, caution is needed in the diagnosis and differentiation of autism without a definite cause.

Until 2013, the reference to identify autism was the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) and the diagnostic and statistical Manual of Mental disorders (DSM-IV-TR) that are still in the manuals and express the term global disorder of Development (TGD) and invasive Developmental disorder (TID).

Finally, there was a change in the denomination, and autism no longer belongs to the invasive developmental disorder—TID, a new nomenclature is Born: Autistic spectrum disorder. Thus, there is a meeting of the terms, because from now on, will not be divided into infantile autism, Kanner Autism, high-functioning autism, atypical autism, Asperger syndrome, degenerative disorder and global developmental disorder. It is divided into mild, moderate and severe.

Ratifying the DSM-5 (APA, 2014) , the Autistic Spectrum disorder (ASD) is classified in the category of neurodevelopmental disorders, characterized by presenting impairments in communication both in verbal and non-verbal language: social interaction, in That the individual seems not to be aware of the presence of the other: it is the restricted and repetitive behavior.

4. Pedagogical Approach

It is notorious the degree of complexity of an autistic student, therefore, the school institution must be covered with pedagogical procedures, among them I highlight the planning, without this action the inclusion process becomes imperfect and unfinished.

In the view of (Silva & Almeida, 2012) :

The pedagogical practice with the autistic student demands from the educator an organization of his work. This professional should propose strategies in their planning that can be achieved by these students in a special way, developing their skills and competencies, seeking to promote the full participation of all in the educational process.

There are pedagogical methods to reach students with ASD, treatment and education for autistic and children with communication-related deficits—TEACCH, the child is analyzed individually. Also, there is applied behavioral analysis—ABA, derived from the behaviorist theory, with observation, analyzes and explains the environment, behavior and learning. It is one of the ways to propose the interaction between the autistic and the social environment. According to Mello (2004) , the ABA method is an inductive behavioral treatment, that is, built by stages, where the child develops new skills.

This does not mean that teachers should not be cognitivists, for Vigotsky (1989) already indicated that a technicist and hegemonic education precludes the full development of the student. There is a myth that autistic students only learn in a partial, isolated and autonomous way, on the contrary, their education must have power in social interactions and in the signification of the school’s processes.

For this, it is indispensable to develop pedagogical methods that seek interaction, observing their potentialities, identifying the axis of interest and stimulating the hyperfocus of this student.

The professors have the perception of these singularities and the application of techniques, among them: games with numbers, paintings, drawings, poetry, music and others. It is noted that several pedagogical pathways can create connections between the various sciences and simultaneously promote autonomy and sociability.

5. Curriculum

For the autistic to acquire certain social skills and autonomy are wonderful achievements, look at the prospect of accomplishing simple tasks and raising their independence are synonyms of success and victory. It occurs that for this understanding within the school universe, sometimes competitive, market sounds like failure. Hence the importance of and a curriculum, as it discusses Santomé (1998) , “something consubstantial to the integrated curriculum is that the previous knowledge, needs, interests and learning rhythms of each student should be respected.”

Thus, thrive a curriculum is to change the tonic of knowledge, value stages, learn with interaction, cognition and movements, to make the environment for learning and stimuli. Therefore, Sacristán (2000) :

The curriculum accomplished. As a consequence of the practice, complex effects of different types are produced: cognitive, affective, social, moral, etc. These are effects that sometimes pay attention because they are considered valuable and prominent “yields” of the system or pedagogical methods. But on its side, there are many other effects that, due to lack of sensitivity towards them and by difficulty to appreciate them (because many of them, besides complex and undefined, are effects in the medium and long term), will be the hidden effects of teaching. The consequences of the curriculum are reflected in students’ learning, but also affect teachers, in the form of professional socialization, and even project themselves in the social environment, family, etc.

For the effectiveness of inclusive education, there is a maxim: everyone must be involved. Therefore, in the construction of curriculum, integrality, the collectivity of ideas need to be consonant with what is taught. Usually, our institutions increase valuable curricula, sometimes devoid of the reality of the student, preserves an immense content and fails to observe the knowledge once acquired. In improving this vision, he reports Santomé (1998) :

One of the reasons that have been used to defend integrated curricula is that they are a way of balancing an excessively centered teaching in the memorization of content, thus enabling the processes to be implemented. The education of the person also needs to include the ability to treat and apply knowledge, estimate its limitations and develop the means to overcome them. (Santomé, 1998)

Within the learning process, disciplinary conversations gain corporification in curriculum integration. Teaching is a dynamism, the discernment of why learning certain content becomes much more meaningful. When it comes to a student with ASD, it is not enough to receive or just enroll, the development of the school structure of teaching and learning procedures is unfeasible, accompanied by a curriculum built on the collectivity.

6. Organization and Management System of the Institution

As a rule, management in the field of professional education is known as school administration, because it presents a bias of companies, with characteristics of functionalist management, can centered in the director, Linear communication, more emphasis on the tasks that in People.

For inclusion to occupy its space in a full way, management must possess a democratic-participatory, emancipating, coherent and transformative conception. Building a collective pedagogical political project, has a manager knowledgeable of the social needs and the subject-actors, representing the best postures, attitudes and values centered on democracy.

According to Libâneo (2001) :

The Democratic-participatory management values the participation of the school community in the decision-making process, conceives the teaching as interactive work, betting on the collective construction of the objectives and functioning of the school, through the dynamics Intersubjective, dialogue, consensus.

People with disabilities find in this location the guidelines for inclusion and success in teaching and learning that will make the autistic student a full citizen in the society in which he lives.

It is important to report that in the Federal Institute of Acre There are administrative actions to safeguard the inclusion of disabled students. The nucleus of care for people with special needs—NAPNE develops pedagogical activities, training courses for professors and technicians, and annually promotes the inclusive journey: instigating actions for the need to include. We can say that in the institution, NAPNE is the institutional gateway to inclusion.

Likewise, within the pro-rectory of teaching, there is a coordination of inclusive actions—COAI, which in harmony with the educational management provides inclusive policies and aims to advise, subsidize and promote activities aimed at access, Qualified participation and training of all and for the correct implementation of the policy of diversity and inclusion in the institution.

7. Final Considerations

The path of the laws is tricked, while the real social inclusion still presents deficiencies. This already summarizes part of what we identify. The works are initial and require a detachment from the traditional school and being covered with a new posture so that the laws are not ineffective, and may have applicability. An inclusive education training through continuing training course is the first step to inclusion, improve documents, access, training, make the environment not only professional, but, mainly, educational, holistic, exemplar. The bibliographic review allowed knowing the guidelines of inclusive adjectives, the pedagogical approach, the essential planning for teachers to incorporate students with and without disabilities, the construction of a collective pedagogical political project, allied to a management based on the democratic state of law, the first concepts that reveal ignorance about autism and its variables, the need for engagement, to design a better tomorrow and a school full of dignity to the human person, consequently in the Concerta universalization of students, especially those with ASD.

Cite this paper
de Oliveira, R. , de Farias, C. and de Freitas, C. (2019) The Inclusion of People with Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Field of Vocational Education—Case IFAC—Campus Rio Branco. Creative Education, 10, 1251-1258. doi: 10.4236/ce.2019.106094.
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