the long-term economic impacts of hatchery research and innovation. Although somewhat difficult to quantify    , the considerable and consistent year-to-year research output at McNenny likely produces substantial long-term economic benefits both within the local economy and well-beyond the borders of South Dakota    .
This study is the first to determine the economic impact of any publicly-owned fish hatchery in South Dakota, and any state-owed fish hatchery in the United States. This information can be used by administrators while making decisions on future budgeting and expenditures. As an initial effort, the results from this study should be verified by additional information on hatchery economics as well as a large survey of anglers to determine more accurate values for willingness-to-pay per fish caught or for increases in fish size.
We thank Jill Voorhees and Nathan Huysman for their review of this manuscript and Robert Hanten for his assistance in obtaining information on the Chinook salmon program.
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