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 JBM  Vol.7 No.6 , June 2019
The Physiopathological Crossroads of Aging
Abstract: Stress, inflammation and Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) are key mechanisms throughout the development of aging, constituting a crossroad in the most frequent pathologies that accompany it. Among metabolic processes, obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus are included and Alzheimer’s disease among the neurodegenerative processes. Stress is a mechanism of defense of the organism against exogenous and endogenous actions called stressors. In the case of low intensity stimuli, the organism responds with actions aimed at a physiological adaptation (Homeostasis). On the other hand, when a high intensity (experimental level) or chronic stimulus (oxidative stress) is repeated, structural and functional changes are observed in different organs with activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, the renin angiotensin system and the sympathetic nervous system, stimulating the production of hormones that release cytokines with proin-flammatory/antiinflammatory properties that play an important role in the previously mentioned pathologies, as well as a marked increase in PAI-1, a gene regulated by stress and by cytokines, with manifest action at the origin of thromboembolic disease, so frequent in aging. The objective of this review is to highlight the importance of the binomial stress and PAI-1 in aging and in the pathologies that accompany it. Because PAI-1 is part of the pathology and complications in aging, some authors suggest the study of PAI-1 inhibitors to achieve its physiological levels, as part of the treatment of these diseases.
Cite this paper: Lasierra-Cirujeda, J. , Coronel, P. , Pascual-Salcedo, M. , Gimeno, M. , Salcedo, M. , Lasierra-Ibañez, A. and Lasala-Aza, C. (2019) The Physiopathological Crossroads of Aging. Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, 7, 102-128. doi: 10.4236/jbm.2019.76007.
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