JWARP  Vol.11 No.5 , May 2019
The Fertilizer-Effect on Al, Ba, Fe, Mn and Ni Released in a Watershed with Influence of Sugar Cane Crops in the São Paulo State, Brazil
Abstract: São Paulo State is the main sugar cane producer and these agricultural activities are carried out in predominantly sandy soils, which require large amounts of phosphate fertilizers and amendments. This work evaluated the fertilizer-effect on the Al, Ba, Fe, Mn and Ni released in a watershed with influence of sugar cane crops in the São Paulo State, Brazil, namely the Monjolo Grande Stream basin. Five surface water sampling campaigns were carried out at the mouth of Monjolo Grande Stream in February, April, June, September and November 2010, characterizing the following parameters: discharge, pH, temperature, electric conductivity, dissolved oxygen and total and dissolved concentrations of Al, Ba, Fe, Mn and Ni. Approximately 99% of Al and Fe are transported annually in association with suspended sediments carried to the Monjolo Grande Stream by sheet erosion. The results also demonstrated that the increasing Al, Ba, Fe and Mn concentrations dissolved in the waters of the Monjolo Grande Stream basin in the wet season are associated to phosphate fertilizers and amendments that are used extensively in agrichemical activities. However, with the current application rates, there has been no increase in the dissolved concentrations of these metals at levels that could pose risks to human health.
Cite this paper: Júnior, E. , Conceição, F. , Menegário, A. , Fernandes, A. and Sardinha, D. (2019) The Fertilizer-Effect on Al, Ba, Fe, Mn and Ni Released in a Watershed with Influence of Sugar Cane Crops in the São Paulo State, Brazil. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 11, 638-650. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2019.115037.

[1]   Goldemberg, J., Mello, F.F.C., Cerri, C.E.P., Davies, C.A. and Cerri, C.C. (2014) Meeting the Global Demand for Biofuels in 2021 through Sustainable Land Use Change Policy. Energy Policy, 69, 14-18.

[2]   CONAB (2012) Acompanhamento da safra brasileira: Ca-na-de-açúcar, primeiro levantamento.

[3]   Conceição, F.T., Navarro, G.R.B. and Silva, A.M. (2013) Anthropogenic Influences on Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn Concentrations in Soils and Sediments in a Watershed with Sugar Cane Crops at São Paulo, Brazil. International Journal of Environmental Research, 7, 551-560.

[4]   Conceição, F.T. and Bonotto, D.M. (2003) Use of U-Isotopes Disequilibrium to Evaluate the Weathering Rates and Fertilizer-Derived Uranium at São Paulo State, Brazil. Environmental Geology, 44, 408-418.

[5]   Cidu, R. and Frau, F. (2009) Distribution of Trace Elements in Filtered and Non-Filtered Aqueous Fractions: Insights from Rivers and Streams of Sardinia (Italy). Applied Geochemistry, 24, 611-623.

[6]   Zarazua, G., ávila-Pérez, P., Tejeda, S., Barcelo-Quintal, I. and Martínez, T. (2006) Analysis of Total and Dissolved Heavy Metals in Surface Water of a Mexican Polluted River by Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry. Spectrochimica Acta Part B, 61, 1180-1184.

[7]   Cukrov, N., Cmuk, P., Mlakar, M. and Omanovic, M. (2008) Spatial Distribution of Trace Metals in the Krka River, Croatia: An Example of the Self-Purification. Chemosphere, 72, 1559-1566.

[8]   Spatti Jr., E.P., Pereira, L.H., Conceição, F.T., Pinto, S.A.F., Guedes Jr., E. and Silva, F.A.V. (2012) Impactos ambientais na bacia hidrográfica do Ribeirão Monjolo Grande, Ipeúna, SP. Geografia, 37, 477-491.

[9]   Ross, J.L.S. (1996) Geografia do Brasil. EDUSP, São Paulo.

[10]   IPT (1981) Mapa Geológico do Estado de São Paulo. São Paulo.

[11]   Agudo, E.G. (1988) Guia técnico de coleta e preservação de amostras de água. CETESB, São Paulo.

[12]   Sardinha, D.S., Bonotto, D.M. and Conceição, F.T. (2010) Weathering Rates at Sorocaba River Basin, Brazil, Using U-Isotopes and Major Cations. Environmental Earth Science, 61, 1025-1036.

[13]   USEPA (1990) Methods for Chemical Analysis of Water and Wastes EPA 3010. Cincinnati.

[14]   Conceição, F.T., Sardinha, D.S., Souza, A.D.G. and Navarro, G.R.B. (2010) Anthropogenic Influences on Annual Flux of Cations and Anions at Meio Stream Basin, São Paulo, Brazil. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 205, 79-91.

[15]   Brasil (2005) Resolução CONAMA n˚ 357. CONAMA, Brasília.

[16]   Brasil (2011) Portaria no 2914. Ministério da Saúde, Brasília.

[17]   Lerman, A., Wu, L. and MacKenzie, F.T. (2007) CO2 and H2SO4 Consumption in Weathering and Material Transport to the Ocean, and Their Role in Global Carbon Balance. Marine Chemistry, 106, 326-350.

[18]   Spatti Jr., E.P., Conceição, F.T., Guedes Jr., Pinto, S.A.F.E. and Pereira, L.H. (2014) Balanço entre intemperismo químico e remoção do solo na bacia do Ribeirão Monjolo Grande, Ipeúna (SP), determinado por geoquímica fluvial. Revista Brasileira de Geomorfologia, 15, 137-151.

[19]   Martini, I.P. and Chesworth, W. (1992) Weathering, Soils, and Paleosols. Elsevier, New York.

[20]   Conceição, F.T. and Bonotto, D.M. (2004) Weathering Rates and Anthropogenic Influences in a Sedimentary Basin, São Paulo State, Brazil. Applied Geochemistry, 19, 575-591.

[21]   Conceição, F.T., Bonotto, D.M., Jiménez-Rueda, J.R. and Roveda, J.A.F. (2009) Distribution of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in Soils and Sugar Cane Crops at Corumbataí River Basin, São Paulo State, Brazil. Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 67, 1114-1120.

[22]   Conceição, F.T. (2004) Comportamento geoquímico de radionuclídeos e metais pesados em solos na bacia do Rio Corumbataí (SP). PhD Thesis, UNESP, Rio Claro.

[23]   Eriksson, J.E. (1990) Effect of Nitrogen-Containing Fertilizers on Solubility and Plant Uptake of Cadmium. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 49, 355-368.

[24]   Martínez, C.E. and Motto, H.L. (2000) Solubility of Lead, Zinc and Copper Added to Minerals Soils. Environmental Pollution, 107, 153-158.

[25]   Matos, A.T., Fontes, M.P.F., da Costa, L.M. and Martines, M.A. (2001) Mobility of Heavy Metals as Related to Soil Chemical and Mineralogical Characteristics of Brazilian Soils. Environmental Pollution, 111, 429-435.

[26]   Chen, S., Sun, L., Sun, T., Chao, L. and Guo, G. (2007) Interaction between Cadmium, Lead and Potassium Fertilizer (K2SO4) in a Soil-Plant System. Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 29, 435-446.

[27]   Liu, J., Duan, C., Zhu, Y., Zhang, X. and Wang, C. (2007) Effect of Chemical Fertilizers on the Fractionation of Cu, Cr and Ni in Contaminated Soil. Environmental Geology, 52, 1601-1606.

[28]   Bringham, F.T., Garrison, S. and Strong, J.E. (1984) The Effect of Chloride on the Availability of Cadmium. Journal of Environmental Quality, 13, 71-74.