Back
 JACEN  Vol.8 No.2 , May 2019
Effects of Use and Re-Use of Selected Vegetable Oils on the Proximate, Minerals, Mineral Ratios and Mineral Safety Index of Raw and Fried Plantain Chips: Note I
Abstract: Raw and fried plantain chips obtained from the use and re-use of olive, refined palm olein and coconut oils were investigated for the proximate, mineral compositions, computed mineral ratios and the mineral safety index using standard analytical methods. For the selected oils (both use and re-use): first and second re-use and the fresh plantain chips (unprocessed plantain chips; UPC) had the following range results: proximate composition (%) (moisture: 8.20 - 12.3, crude protein: 9.70 - 8.60, fat: 7.40 - 12.9, fibre: 3.50 - 4.90, ash: 2.80 - 3.80 and carbohydrates: 63.5 - 64.8), % energy contributions (PEC: 63.4 - 70.8, PEF: 20.2 - 28.6, PEP: 8.03 - 9.66, UEDP: 4.49 - 5.08). The mineral composition (mg/100g) of the samples had the following greater than 80.0: Ca, Mg, K and P; Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn recorded values ranging between 1.00 and 4.00; Co, Se and Ni had their concentrations between 0.00 and 0.0363 whereas Pb and Cd recorded levels lower than 0.0006. In the mineral ratios, only K/(Ca + Mg) values fell within the acceptable ideal range. No MSI aberration was observed for the minerals from all the samples obtained from the various oils. The chi-square analysis showed that on parameter wise comparisons, there were no significant differences among the levels as treated based on the various oils except gross energy, Mg, K, P, Ca/P, Fe/Pb and K/Co. Also on pairwise comparison from linear correlation and regression, all these parameters were significantly different at r = 0.01 between the unprocessed and fried plantain samples: proximate, percentage energy distribution, mineral and mineral ratios. Generally, the first (day) frying showed fairly high nutrient concentration than the first and second re-use oils products. Therefore, for optimum nutrient preservation from fried plantain chips re-use of oil for frying should be sparingly allowed. However, olive showed highest level of nutrients in terms of proximate and mineral compositions.
Cite this paper: Adeyeye, E. , Adesina, A. , Olagboye, S. and Olatunya, M. (2019) Effects of Use and Re-Use of Selected Vegetable Oils on the Proximate, Minerals, Mineral Ratios and Mineral Safety Index of Raw and Fried Plantain Chips: Note I. Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment, 8, 92-106. doi: 10.4236/jacen.2019.82008.
References

[1]   FAO (2005) Production Yearbook for 2005, FAOSTAT Data. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Rome.

[2]   Olorunda, A.O. and Adelusola, M.A. (1997) Screening of Plantain/Banana Cultivars for Import, Storage and Resistance to Disease and Pests. The International Symposium on Genetic Improvement of Bananas for Resistance to Disease and Pests, CIRAD, Montpellier, France, 7-9 September 1997.

[3]   Adeyeye, E.I., Adesina, A.J. and Faleye, F.J. (2018) Effects of Use and Re-Use of Selected Vegetable Oils on the Anti-Nutritional and Antioxidants Contents of Raw and Fried Plantain Chips. Note 1. CPQ Nutrition, 1, 1-29.

[4]   Akinsanmi, A.O., Akinyemi, J.A. and Adefegha, A.S. (2015) Assessment of the Nutritional, Anti-Nutritional and Antioxidant Capacity of Unripe, Ripe and over Ripe Plantain (Musa parasidica) Peels. International Journal of Advanced Research, 3, 63-7

[5]   Penelope, N. and Ritu, N. (2003) Food Preparation Practices Can Affect Provitamin a Caroternoids Content and Bioavalability ILSI. Human Nutrition Institute, USA.

[6]   Omotosho, O.E., Garuba, R., Ayoade. F., Adebayo, A.H., Adedipe, O.E. and Chinedu, S.N. (2016) Effects of Deep-Fat Frying Using Canola Oil, Soya Oil, and Vegetable Oil on the Proximate, Vitamins and Mineral Contents of Unripe Plantain (Musa paradisiaca). Jounal of Applied Sciences, 16, 103-167.
https://doi.org/10.3923/jas.2016.103.107

[7]   Mba, O.I., Dumant, M.J. and Ngadi, M. (2015) Influence of Palm Oil, Canola Oil, and Blends on Characteristics of Fried Plantain Crisps. British Food Journal, 117, 1793-1807.
https://doi.org/10.1108/BFJ-04-2014-0155

[8]   Erdman, J.W. and Schneider, A.G. (1994) Factors Affecting Nutritive Value in Processed Food. Romanian Journal of Food Science, 12, 111-136.

[9]   Yang, J. and Gadi, R.L. (2008) Effects of Steaming and Dehydration on Anthocyanins, Antioxidant Activity, Total Phenols and Color Characteristics of Purple-Fleshed Sweet Potatoes (Ipomoea batatas). American Journal of Food Technology, 3, 224-234.
https://doi.org/10.3923/ajft.2008.224.234

[10]   Pearson, D. (1976) Chemical Analysis of Foods. 7th Edition, J. & A. Churchill, London, 7-11.

[11]   AOAC (2006) Official Methods of Analysis. 18th Edition, Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington DC.

[12]   Varian Techtron Pty Ltd. (1975) Basic Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy: A Modern Introduction. Varian Techtron Pty Ltd., Springvale, Australia.

[13]   Hatcock, J.N. (1985) Quantitative Evaluation of Vitamin Safety. Pharmacy Times, Cranbury, NJ, 104-135.

[14]   Watts, D.L. (2010) HTMA Mineral Ratios: A Brief Discussion of Their Clinical Importance. Trace Elements Newsletter, 21, 1-3.

[15]   Analytical Research Labs (2012) Basic Ratios and Their Meaning, 2225 W Alice-Avenue-Phoenix, Arizona 85021.

[16]   Oloyo, R.A. (2001) Fundamentals of Research Methodology for Social and Applied Sciences. ROA Educational Press, Ilaro, Nigeria.

[17]   Chase, C.I. (1976) Elementary Statistical Procedures. 2nd Edition, McGraw-Hill Kogakusha Ltd., Tokyo.

[18]   Davey, K.R. (1989) A Predictive Model for the Combine Temperature and Water Activity on Microbial Growth during the Growth Phase. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 67, 483-488.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2672.1989.tb02519.x

[19]   Naz, S., Ajum, M.A., Naqvi, S.A.H., Siddique, B. and Zulfiqar, M.A. (2018) Assessment of Proximate; Nutritional and Mineral Contents in Some Traditional Vegetables Consumed in Multan. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research, 31, 3375-3381.
https://doi.org/10.17582/journal.pjar/2018/31.4.375.381

[20]   Ukom, A.N. and Obi, J.A. (2018) Comparative Evaluation of the Nutrient Composition and Physicochemical Content of Selected Vegetables Consumed in Nigeria. International Letters of Natural Sciences, 71, 43-50.
https://doi.org/10.18052/www.scipress.com/ILNS.71.43

[21]   Njinkoue, J.M., Foumedzo, R., Leng, M.M., Djopnang, J.D., Mawamba, A.D., Kana, M.M., Schweigert, F.J., Gouado, I. and Tchoumbougnang, F. (2019) Proximate Composition and Micronutrient Content of callianassa turnerana from the Wouri, Estuary, Cameroon. Journal of Food Research, 8, 32-40.
https://doi.org/10.5539/jfr.v8n1p32

[22]   Adeyeye, E.I. and Adubiaro, H.O. (2018) Proximate, Mineral, Vitamin Compositions, Mineral Safety Index and Mineral Ratios of the Flesh of Hetrosexual Pairs of Neopetrolisthes macalatus. Sustainable Food Production, 3, 46-62.
https://doi.org/10.18052/www.scipress.com/SFP.3.46

[23]   Elegbede, I.O. and Fashina-Bombeta, H.A. (2013) Proximate and Mineral Composition of Common Crap Species [Callinectes pallidus and Cardisoma armatum] of Badagrycreck, Nigeria. Poultry, Fisheries and Wildlife Sciences, 2, 110-114.
https://doi.org/10.4172/2375-446X.1000110

[24]   Akindahunsi, A.A. and Salawu, S.O. (2005) Phytochemical Screening and Nutrient-Antinutrient Composition of Selected Tropical Green Leafy Vegetables. African Journal of Biotechnology, 4, 497-501.

[25]   Anita, S., Akpan, E.J., Okon, P.A. and Umoren, I.U. (2006) Nutritive and Antinutritive Evaluation of Sweet Potatoes (Ipomea batatas) Leaves. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 5, 166-168.
https://doi.org/10.3923/pjn.2006.166.168

[26]   NACNE (National Advisory Committee on Nutrition Education) (1983) Proposal for Nutritional Guideline for Health Education in Britain. Health Education Council, London.

[27]   COMA (Committee on Medical Aspects) (1984) Committee on Medical Aspect of Food Policy: Diet and Cardiovascular Disease, HMSO, London.

[28]   Bayeri, K.P., Aba, S.C., Otitoju, G.T. and Mbah, O.B. (2011) The Effects Ripening and Cooking Method. On Mineral and Proximate Composition of Plantain (Musa. sp. AAB cv Agbagba) Fruit Pulp. African Journal of Biotechnology, 10, 6979-6984.

[29]   Lopez, H.W., Leenhardt, F., Coudray, C. and Remesy, C. (2002) Minerals and Phytic Acid Interactions: Is It Real Problem for Human Nutrition? International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 37, 727-739.
https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2621.2002.00618.x

[30]   Okwu, D.E. and Okwu, M.E. (2004) Chemical Composition of spondias mombim Linn Plants. Journal of Environment & Sustainable Agriculture, 6,140-147.

[31]   Javed, A. (2011) Proximate Composition, Minerals and Vitamins Content of Selected Vegetables Grown in Peshawear. Journal of the Chemical Society of Pakistan, 33, 118-122.

[32]   Bergman, C., Gray-Scott, D., Chen, J.J. and Meacham, S. (2009) What Is Next to Dietary Reference Intakes for Bone Metabolism Related to Nutrients Beyond Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D and Fluoride? Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 49, 136-144.
https://doi.org/10.1080/10408390701764468

[33]   Murray, R.K., Granner, D.K., Mayes, P.A. and Rodwell, V.W. (2000) Harper’s Biochemistry. 25thEdition, Health Profession Division, McGraw-Hill, New York.

[34]   Nieman, D.C., Butlerworth, D.E. and Nieman, C.N. (1992) Nutrition, WmC. Brown Books Publishing, Dallas, TX, 227-312.

 
 
Top