JBM  Vol.7 No.5 , May 2019
Epidemiological Pattern of Closed Femoral Shaft Fractures in a Regional Tertiary Hospital in Enugu, Nigeria
Abstract: Background: The femur is the longest and strongest tubular bone in the human body. The femoral shaft is the portion of the bone between 5 cm distal to the lesser trochanter and 6 cm proximal to the most distal point of the medial femoral condyle. Femoral shaft fractures often result from high energy forces. These fractures occur mostly among young adults. Objective: This was to determine the epidemiological pattern of closed femoral shaft fractures in a regional tertiary hospital in Enugu, Nigeria. Method: The study was a prospective study over a 12 month period (June 2015-May 2016) at National Orthopaedic Hospital, Enugu. Following ethical approval and written informed consent, patients were consecutively recruited. The patients were clinically and radiographically evaluated at presentation. The diagnosis of closed femoral shaft fractures were made from the physical examination finding of absent open wound communicating with the fracture hematoma in the thigh and anteroposterior (AP) and lateral x-rays of the affected thigh confirming the fracture pattern. The data collected included patients’ demographics, the cause of injury, the side of injury and anatomic site of the injury among other parameters. The data were collected using well designed and structured proforma. Results: A total of 52 femoral shaft fractures in 50 patients were included and analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. The age range of the patients is 18 - 85 years with a median age of 39.1 ± 14.9 years. The most commonly affected age group is 21 - 30 years. There was male preponderance with a male to female ratio of 2.3:1. Majority of the fractures (76.9%) resulted from road traffic crashes most commonly following motor vehicular accident (36.5%). Majority of the fractures (92.3%) are unilateral with right side to left side ratio of 1.2:1. Majority of the patients (51.9%) had Winquist Hansen grade III type of fracture. The most common associated injury is fractures of tibia/fibula followed by fracture of the neck of the ipsilateral femur. All the patients were treated operatively using either locked intramedullary nailing technique or plating technique. Majority of the patients (59.6%) were discharged between 10th and 29th day post-operatively. Conclusion: From the results of this study, it is concluded that most of the closed femoral shaft fractures were caused by high energy trauma from road traffic crashes. It is therefore recommended that proper education of motorists on good use of roads and strict adherence to traffic rules will significantly help in preventing the occurrence of these fractures in our environment.
Cite this paper: Iyidobi, E. , Ekwunife, R. , Enweani, U. , Nwadinigwe, C. , Okwesili, I. and Ekwedigwe, H. (2019) Epidemiological Pattern of Closed Femoral Shaft Fractures in a Regional Tertiary Hospital in Enugu, Nigeria. Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, 7, 180-188. doi: 10.4236/jbm.2019.75019.

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