Integrating innovation and entrepreneurship education into talent training is not only to meet the requirements of China’s economic and social development and national innovation strategy, but also the only way to improve the quality of talent training. This paper will summarize the experience and lessons of some colleges and universities, and focus on the path of integrating innovation and entrepreneurship education into the whole process of talent cultivation in Chinese colleges and universities.
2. The Necessary for Innovation and Entrepreneurship Education to Be Integrated into the Whole Process of Talent Cultivation in Chinese Universities
2.1. Strategic Deployment of National Innovation-Driven Development
With the continuous development of the knowledge economy and the new industrial revolution, China has firmly implemented the strategy of innovation-driven development. In this strategic deployment, as the cultivation of talent colleges and universities cannot shirk the important role of leading and supporting. Innovation has become an important source of strength in promoting China’s economic and social transformation and development. Giving full play to the role of universities in the cultivation of innovative and entrepreneurial talents and improving the quality of university personnel training are important guarantees for China to remain invincible in the international competition (Hu, Du, & Chen, 2017) .
2.2. A New Engine for China’s Sustained Economic Growth
The new normal of economic development puts forward higher requirements for national innovation capacity and level. Innovation has become an important engine to adjust the structure, transform the development and stimulate the new core competitiveness, and training innovative talents puts forward higher requirements for the quality of talent training in Chinese universities. Integrating innovation and entrepreneurship education into the whole process of college talent cultivation is an inevitable way for colleges and universities to adapt to the new national economic development needs, take the initiative to integrate into the new normal and grasp the new normal (Cao & Zhou, 2018) .
2.3. The Need of Cultivating High-Quality Talents in Chinese Universities
Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, China’s higher education has undergone many reforms and has achieved many historic achievements, and has gradually moved from a large country of higher education to a country with a higher education. This requires that China’s higher education should pay more attention to the development of connotation and continuously improve the quality of personnel training. In particular, it is necessary to integrate the “double innovation” education into the whole process of personnel training, grasp the breakthrough of “double innovation” education, and strive to cultivate the needs of adapting to the new era. Innovation and entrepreneurship education has become an innovation, a development and a sublimation of the talent training model in Chinese higher education institutions.
3. Innovative Entrepreneurship Education Integrates into the Challenges of the Whole Process of Talent Cultivation in Chinese Universities
3.1. Chinese Innovation and Entrepreneurship Education Is Subject to Ideological Constraints
Innovative entrepreneurship education aims to cultivate talents with pioneering individuality, and make students become high-quality talents with innovative thinking and innovative ability (Yu, 2017) . However, in the actual cultivation process, the education management of Chinese universities inevitably puts the talent cultivation mode of “application type, diversification, production, study and research combination” as the training mode of innovation and entrepreneurship education talents, and some universities believe that innovation and entrepreneurship education. It is aimed at the entrepreneurial practice and employment behavior of some college students. As a result, the innovation and entrepreneurship curriculum of colleges and universities is in the form. The competition for innovation and entrepreneurship is only a means for students to improve their comprehensive evaluation. The innovation and entrepreneurship education has become very utilitarian.
3.2. Chinese Colleges and Universities Lack Individualized Innovation and Entrepreneurial Talent Training Mechanism
The essence of innovation and entrepreneurship is “to do something different, not to do something better that has already been done” (Yu, 2017) . Therefore, it is more necessary to cultivate college students into innovative talents who are distinctive and unique, able to find opportunities that others cannot find, utilize resources that others cannot use, find methods that others cannot imagine, and are full of the spirit of innovation and entrepreneurship. However, the current talent cultivation mode in Chinese colleges and universities includes the “homogenization” and “simplification” of the cultivation of college students’ innovation and entrepreneurship ability. In the process of carrying out the cultivation of innovation and entrepreneurship talents, there is a lack of investigation and solidification. It rarely makes active adjustment according to the changes of students and lacks the thinking of the whole process of talent cultivation. Although the starting point of the training mode is to cultivate innovation and entrepreneurship ability, the actual effect is that college students lack innovation spirit and entrepreneurship ability, and it is difficult to meet the needs of diversified development of personality of college students in the new era, unable to mobilize the enthusiasm of students, and affect the effective improvement of college students’ innovation and entrepreneurship ability (Liu & He, 2018) .
3.3. China’s Faculty of Innovation and Entrepreneurship Education Needs to Be Improved
The cultivation of college students’ innovation and entrepreneurship education ability is inseparable from a high-quality faculty. As the pioneer of innovation and entrepreneurship education, teachers have a direct influence on the quality of innovation and entrepreneurship education. However, the ratio of teachers to students in the construction of innovative and entrepreneurial teachers in China is seriously unbalanced, and the number of teachers is obviously insufficient. Innovative undertaking education although set up a special department, but the teachers troop is affiliated with the ministry of education, “job search” enrollment, “students essence” and other relevant departments, teachers to the completion of teaching tasks, to participate in scientific research project, the innovation training, learning, energy is limited, their own lack of innovation ability of entrepreneurship education, not to mention to the cultivation of students’ creative thinking and innovation ability. The school’s management incentive system for entrepreneurship tutors is not perfect, and the existing short-term and random entrepreneurship training cannot meet the needs of teachers’ career development. Teachers have few opportunities to connect with enterprises, know little about the operation and management of enterprises, and have no experience in investment or entrepreneurship. Schools are short of “masters” and “double-qualified” talents who understand both theory and production, production and entrepreneurship.
4. Exploration on the Path of Integrating Innovation and Entrepreneurship Education into the Whole Process of Talent Cultivation in Chinese Colleges and Universities
For better implementation in October 2015, Li Keqiang, prime minister of the first China “Internet+” contest of college students’ innovative undertaking important instructions: career education into the innovation talent training, strengthen the sense of the students’ entrepreneurial and innovative spirit and creative ability, strengthen the public entrepreneurship, innovation of soil, to provide a steady stream of talent intelligence support to build an innovation-oriented country (Li, 2015) . In combination with their own reality, colleges and universities are constantly exploring ways to integrate innovation and entrepreneurship education into the whole process of talent cultivation. For example, Xi’an university of science and technology has explored a new mechanism for training innovative and entrepreneurial talents to “promote the combination of education and teaching through competition” (Yao, 2018) ; Northeast forestry university explores the practical teaching system of whole-process talent cultivation for innovation and entrepreneurship (Wang, Li, Zhang, & Chen, 2017) ; Wu Liquan proposed to integrate innovation and entrepreneurship education into the whole process of talent cultivation from the aspects of professional education in the first class, ideological and political education, activities in the second class and school-enterprise cooperation (Wu, 2018) . Part on the basis of predecessors’ research, and through the innovation of colleges and universities entrepreneurship education into the whole process of talent training practice exploration research, oneself through literature induction method, investigation method, sum up the successful experience of some universities, draw lessons from their failures, the system analyzes the innovation entrepreneurship education into the path of the whole process of talent training.
4.1. Establish the Correct Concept of Innovation and Entrepreneurship Education
Innovation and entrepreneurship education is not a simple superposition of innovation education and entrepreneurship education, but the chemical transformation of the two, innovation should be guided by entrepreneurship, and entrepreneurship should be based on innovation (Wang, 2018) . The goal is to cultivate students’ innovative spirit, entrepreneurial awareness and innovative entrepreneurship (Chen & Wang, 2018) .
4.2. Exploring a New Mechanism for Cultivating Innovative Entrepreneurial Talents
4.2.1. Continue to Cultivate People’s Virtue and Integrate Innovation and Entrepreneurship Education into Ideological and Political Education
Ideological and political education is a process of practice, cognition, practice and cognition. Only in practical application, ideological and political education has the meaning of existence. Therefore, in the innovation and entrepreneurship education of college students, to solve practical problems, is the concrete embodiment of China’s ideological and political education for practice (Yang, 2012) .
4.2.2. Start with the First Class and Integrate Innovation and Entrepreneurship Education into Professional Education
To comprehensively deepen the innovation and entrepreneurship reform in colleges and universities, accelerate the integration of the first class education and teaching resources, and construct the effective integration of “theory and practice” training mode are the inherent requirements for the integration of innovation and entrepreneurship education in Chinese colleges and universities into the whole process of talent training. Integrating innovation and entrepreneurship education into professional education is conducive to broadening the implementation platform and development space of entrepreneurship education.
4.2.3. Guided by Student Interests, Integrate Innovation and Entrepreneurship Education into the Second Classroom
The school should set up a second classroom system integrating academic science and technology competition, social practice research, social work service and vocational qualification and skills. Students’ innovative spirit, entrepreneurial consciousness and innovative and entrepreneurial ability can be effectively enhanced through lectures on theories, famous enterprises entering the campus and makers. Establish the innovation and entrepreneurship community alliance, carry out innovation and entrepreneurship practice activities, and form a good innovation and entrepreneurship practice atmosphere. To build a platform for science and technology education, science and technology competition and science and technology practice for students, and promote the wide development of discipline competition and extracurricular science and technology activities.
4.2.4. Relying on Social Resources, Integrating Innovation and Entrepreneurship Education into School-Enterprise Cooperation
The development of enterprises depends on innovation, and innovation comes from universities. Actively build a platform for entrepreneurship practice in enterprises and colleges, broaden the practice base of colleges and universities, enrich the practice mode of college students, and effectively combine innovation and entrepreneurship education with the actual needs of enterprises, let demand lead the entrepreneurship, and let entrepreneurship promote the development of enterprises.
4.3. Improve the Construction of Innovative Entrepreneurship Curriculum System
4.3.1. Deepen the Reform of General Education and Entrepreneurship Curriculum, Cultivate Students’ “Double Creation” Consciousness
Under the line, through the face-to-face general education class, online open courses such as “Entrepreneurial Foundation”, “Entrepreneurship and Practice”, “Creative Thinking and Innovative Methods”, etc. through the open video course and the motto class, etc. Innovate thinking and develop a comprehensive and innovative practical curriculum.
4.3.2. Strengthen Professional Curriculum Reform and Cultivate Students’ Innovative and Entrepreneurial Competence in Professional Fields
The design of professional courses highlights the proportion of practical and practical module hours; in the hiring of teachers, more emphasis is placed on combining and hiring entrepreneurs and managers with rich experience in entrepreneurial management in the industry to participate in classroom teaching; teaching content requires professional teachers to innovate and start businesses. The concept penetrates into it; teaching methods focus on case studies, simulation practices, etc., and increase the proportion of on-site teaching and case analysis, and continuously improve the ability of students to innovate and start their own fields.
4.4. Strengthen Innovation and Entrepreneurship Practice Education
4.4.1. Optimize the Campus Practice Education Platform
The resources such as university experimental teaching platform, university science and technology Park, college student entrepreneurship Park, and business incubator base are systematic. It is open to all students in school and builds a good platform for students to practice and innovate.
4.4.2. Implement the Entrepreneurship Training Policy and Implement the College Students’ Innovation and Entrepreneurship Training Program
Develop entrepreneurship training programs, build online training platforms, jointly develop entrepreneurial training programs, and do a good job in student entrepreneurship. We will select and cooperate with the instructors, actively participate in the National College Students Innovation and Entrepreneurship Competition, and regularly hold various special competitions such as scientific and technological innovation, creative design, and entrepreneurial plans.
4.5. Strengthen the Construction of Teachers for Innovation and Entrepreneurship Education
4.5.1. Strengthen the Construction of Outstanding Teams of Innovative and Entrepreneurial Teachers
A group of teaching teams across schools, inter-disciplines, and interdisciplinary schools will be established. According to the disciplines and disciplines, we will clearly define the division of labor, and each of them will take advantage of their own knowledge, fields, and research content, and carry out collaborative innovation to jointly develop innovative and entrepreneurial education. Improve the quality of education and teaching.
4.5.2. Create a “Double-Qualified” Faculty
In order to improve the level of innovation and entrepreneurship education, a group of teachers with new educational means, high professional quality and strong practical ability should be created. Teachers should be arranged to practice in enterprises and scientific research institutions to understand cutting-edge knowledge such as production technology, production process and production equipment. To organize teachers to participate in relevant national vocational qualification training and examinations, obtain vocational qualification certificates of relevant industries, engage in social or teaching activities of relevant majors, and establish a high-quality team of teachers for innovation and entrepreneurship education who understand both theory and production, school development and social needs.
Innovation and entrepreneurship education in colleges and universities is a systematic project, which needs to integrate innovation and entrepreneurship education into the whole process of talent cultivation. In order to achieve this goal, it is necessary to combine innovative ideas, and improve talent cultivation mechanism, curriculum construction, practical training and teacher team construction. This is conducive to the realization of strengthening the training mode of innovative and entrepreneurial talents in colleges and universities in a real sense, cultivating more outstanding talents for the country and the society, enhancing the international competitiveness, and laying a foundation for realizing the ideal of making the country rich and the people strong.
Review and evaluate the rectification of the school-level special project “Innovation and Entrepreneurship Education into the Path of the Whole Process of Talent Cultivation in Our University” in Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University, 2018. Project Number: NDJY1824.
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