JSS  Vol.7 No.4 , April 2019
Media Coverage of Crime in Palestine (Wafa and Watan Models) during the Year 2016 Comparative Analytical Study
ABSTRACT
The study aimed at identifying the coverage of Palestinian websites in the West Bank for crime issues by analyzing the content of the news sites of the Palestinian News Agency WAFA and Watan News Agency during 2016 in the governorates of Nablus, Bethlehem and Hebron. By comparing the two sites through several categories, the study focused solely on homicide, so that the cases were divided into murder (criminal), deadly security events. The WAFA website has relied on official sources for its coverage of crime issues in full. Wattan News Agency has been better positioned to use electronic features in websites than WAFA. A large proportion of the news items were classified as domestic materials, leading to a lack of visibility on crime issues. Only the two sites published only minor news; there was a lack of follow-up of cases of crimes after a period of time, and the political game in the sites in the impact on the quality of news materials.

1. Introduction

The preservation of the human psyche is one of the most important aspects of the laws of God. First, human laws are second, so it is the responsibility of many to protect the human soul and fight all criminal means. There is no doubt that the security services have a great role in reducing crime. It is enough that there are others who have a responsibility to cooperate with the security services to eliminate the phenomenon of crime.

Life is today a development on all levels, as well as the media is one of the most important necessities to be provided in the life of each individual, and the relationship between progress in life and the media is a direct relationship. As the life evolves, the importance of the media increases. There is no doubt that the media plays a major role in influencing communities either negatively or positively.

In today’s era of technological revolution, the Internet has become widely used in various fields of life. It is necessary to draw attention to and concentrate on electronic media because of its great role in influencing the public.

The media is the second official in charge of combating the phenomenon of crime because of the great influence of the media on the public through raising awareness about the dangers of crime in the public mind. The most important duties of the media are to check the accuracy of the information before publishing any news related to the crime, and the contribution of the media to the solution and not to be published solely for transport purposes. But there is a clear failure by the media in dealing with the phenomenon of crime in terms of coverage or prosecution or pursuing crimes and writing necessary investigative reports. The responsibility of the media is not limited to criminal cases, but citizens must be educated through holding lectures and seminars on crime and its impact on society.

It is assumed that the media only transmit news when it occurs, without following up on the following events, and there is a lack of enrichment of the media content of media materials such as images and videos that support the news.

There is a need to identify several issues related to the media, the most important of which is the credibility of the published news about the crime and its role in influencing the public, and the duty of the media to be highly neutral, especially in such cases.

The crime is considered to be any act that leads to the loss of a human spirit, whether intentionally or unintentionally.

Here, the crime was considered to be intentional homicide, so that the cases were divided into criminal offenses or killings in security incidents by relying on police news as a reliable and reliable source and comparing them to the news coverage of both Wafa news websites and Watan [1].

1.1. Problem Statement

The problem is defined as the process of determining the geographic, spatial or temporal area of the search, the elements of the research, and the area in which the research is conducted [2]. In the presence of the modern media represented by electronic media, which has a direct impact on citizen behavior and thought, crime rates have increased in our country recently, which led people to be guided by what the various modern media is supposed to help in achieving security and safety the society.

In light of the absence of intellectual immunization against the crime that must be done by the modern media and the resulting ignorance of the citizen and the establishment of negative misconceptions that contributed to the commission of crimes that destabilized the security and stability of the society and the importance of the role of modern electronic media in educating the citizen and immunizing him against criminal behavior and planting The idea of standing by the security services in the application of the law, and in light of the increasing rate of crime, the electronic media must stand on its duty to reduce the occurrence of crime.

1.2. Hypotheses

With regard to the coverage of the Wafa and Wattan Palestinian news agencies, there is a presumption that its content The Palestinian news agencies Wattan and Wafa are failing to use electronic media in their coverage of the crime news in Palestine, ie not to use interactive media in their coverage of crime news, such as hyperlinks and diversity in the various press arts in terms of investigative report, news story, Weak use of videos documenting the crime in order to emphasize the credibility of the news article and news coverage in the two news agencies, Wattan and Wafa news Palestinian agency.

The hypothesis is defined as predicting accidents, differences between groups and the interrelationships between variables [3]. The study relied on the use of the hypothesis.

1) There is a shortcoming by the modern electronic media in verifying the sincerity of the source that it adopts in publishing its news.

2) Most modern electronic media do not follow the details of events that follow a specific crime.

3) Many of the information materials published on the crime do not contain material supporting the news such as: pictures and videos.

4) There is some weakness in the use of some electronic features in news sites.

5) There is a shortcoming by the modern electronic media in spreading awareness against crime.

6) Most of the news articles published by the modern electronic media on crime are limited to news and sometimes news reports.

1.3. Research Questions

1) What is the credibility of the published news on the crime in Wafa and Wattan?

2) How far is Wafa’s website going to be a national crime agency after a period of time?

3) The extent to which the Wafa and Wattan news agencies have included information on the crime (Photos Video...)?

4) The extent to which Wafa and Watan e-benefits are used (such as hyperlinks, keywords, comment on the news)?

5) The extent to which Wafa and the Wana Agency achieve awareness of crime?

6) What types of news items are used in the Wafa News Agency and the Wattan news agency?

1.4. Importance Research

This research focuses on the role of the media in spreading awareness about crimes of murder Wafa and Watan Palestinian agency because these two agencies are the most news agencies covering the social and local issues in Palestine, The importance of research is that the modern electronic media are instilling some beliefs and cultures in the minds of many, so it has a great responsibility in raising public awareness of certain issues. In this study, it focused on the role of the media in spreading awareness against murder in three of Palestinian cities Nablus, Hebron, and Bethlehem by:

1) To investigate the facts and investigate the accuracy of the information before publishing any information about a crime, so as to avoid problems that may cause the aggravation of a particular issue rather than contributing to its solution in Nablus m Hebron and Bethlehem cities.

2) The seriousness of such issues requires the media to be careful in the transfer of news and transfer motivated by the support of security agencies to solve these problems and not to be published as a former journalist in Nablus m Hebron and Bethlehem cities.

3) This study can contribute to helping the media in developing strategic plans to contribute to reducing the phenomenon of crime in Nablus m Hebron and Bethlehem cities.

4) This study helps to clarify the great impact of the media in contributing to instilling good values and also in reducing crime in our society in Nablus m Hebron and Bethlehem cities.

5) The importance of the study stems from the disclosure of media policies to cover the modern electronic media of crime news in Nablus m Hebron and Bethlehem cities.

2. Previous Research

Al-Balushi (2007): Analysis of the content of the news media in the newspapers.

This study aims at identifying the success of security media materials in achieving the desired goals in raising awareness and protecting society from crime, as well as studying the content of the security message and finding out the types and forms of security media materials desired in daily newspapers.

The researcher relied on the sample survey methodology for the news items published in the daily newspapers about the General Directorate of Abu Dhabi Police. A sample was chosen in May 2007 through the content analysis method.

The study found that the press news format ranked first in terms of overall ranking among the other artistic categories by 96.7%. It also found that Abu Dhabi Police Public Relations Department was the main source of news in all the newspapers regarding police coverage of 2.60%.

The study analyzed the content of news media security in the newspapers. The study is concerned with the importance of the media in raising public awareness and protecting the society from the phenomenon of crime. It also used the content analysis platform to know the types and types of news articles that are published

The study of the analysis of the content of security news in the newspapers was based on the news published in the daily newspapers. The study focused on dealing with the news published on the websites of the news agencies and not the flags of the security authorities [4].

Halima (2008) Entitled: Crime in the Algerian press

The aim of this study is to try to infer the relationship between the increase in crime rate in Algeria and the nature of the media treatments it provides when disseminating this phenomenon and to identify the controls that control the press handling of crime in order to avoid the promotion of this behavior, as well as the role of the media in promoting or limiting the criminal behavior of the individual And to gauge the commitment of the press in Algeria to responsibility towards the individual and society for stability and public awareness [5].

This study was based on the sample survey method. The content analysis method was used to collect the data. The sample was divided into three levels: the sample of the source or a simple type, the sample of the selected numbers and the sample of the analysis material.

The study found that some Algerian newspapers do not have a professional academic level aimed at promoting the written press in form and content. Moreover, these newspapers do not seek to preserve the interests of society, protect its values and ideas, and all that threatens its security and safety. Both studies relied on content analysis.

The relationship between the increase in the number of crimes and the nature of media treatments provided by the written press is a relatively causal one, and it is certain that media treatment plays a role in the formation and promotion of criminal behavior [5]. The study of “Crime in the Algerian Press” and the study analyzed the impact of the good treatment of the news item on crime on the spread of crime and the role of the media in reducing criminal behavior.

The study of “crime in the Algerian press” differs from this study in that it analyzed the content of newspaper news, while this research was based on analysis of the content of the news websites of the news agencies, and this research focuses on media coverage and the importance of following up such issues to reduce them.

A 1984 Alkulini study entitled: The general features of crime patterns in Egyptian society

The aim of this study is to try to determine the degree of interest given by the press to the criminal patterns in terms of space, page, means of highlighting and the quality of the article, as well as to identify the criminal patterns that the newspapers highlight and tend to overlook.

This study used the content analysis method and thus relied on the Al-Ahram and Al-Akhbar newspapers to deal with the news.

The study found that the press is more interested in crimes in urban areas than in rural areas. There is also an interest in Egyptian newspapers in the most exciting criminal patterns compared to the most dangerous patterns in society.

It is clear from the results of the study that there is a relationship between the patterns of the press in each historical stage and the nature of ideological orientation, that is, the crimes that prevailed in the socialist period differ from those that emerged in the liberal period.

The study of the “Profiles of Crime Patterns in Egyptian Society” and the study focused on the interest of the media in the use of investigative tools to highlight crime news to contribute to the reduction of criminal behavior in societies and the role of the media in attracting attention to these issues. Both studies relied on content analysis.

The study of the “general features of crime patterns in Egyptian society” differs from this study in that it is a ricket on newspaper news alone and has a long historical period, while this study focused on the modern media and especially the websites of the agencies.

2.1. Conventional Definitions

Security Media: Specialized communication activities aimed at increasing the impact and effectiveness of the security services through the specialized media to sensitize the maximum target audience to balanced security awareness, with the aim of creating and establishing a security awareness that enriches the moral and material spirit with all the elements of success and excellence, and peace in all spheres of life [6].

Crime: A voluntary act in which the perpetrator violates the law imposed on him [7]. Intentional homicide: The death of a designated person by the death of his soul seriously and with certainty [8].

The concept of news coverage refers to the process by which a journalist or media person obtains information about developments and details regarding the various aspects of events, facts and statements. The concept of news coverage also includes the evaluation and editing of news material, By obtaining the data and details of a particular event and information related to it, its reasons, where it occurred, the names of the participants, how it occurred, and other information that makes the event owner of the elements and elements that make it fit for display [1]. News agencies are the primary funding for news, and are the main means of feeding the rest of the news media with news and keeping abreast of events and their development moment by moment [9].

Modern media: a set of communication technologies that have been created between computers and traditional means of information, printing, photography, audio and video [10].

2.2. Literature Reviews

Theory is defined as a set of interrelated concepts and definitions that interpret and predict phenomena [11]. Theory of prioritization and agenda:

The idea of this theory is that, as the agenda determines in any meeting, the topics that will be discussed are based on their importance, that is, the media has the same function, which has its own agenda and agenda. The agenda of the media is the programs and topics it presents It seems to the public that these programs or these themes and ideas are more important than others and the first interest in the premise that the theory of priority setting and philosophy begins or meet with the famous saying of a communication scientists that it is so important that it is always present in the media and the other trivial to the extent rarely seen in the media [12].

This theory stems from the ability of the news media to highlight the importance of political issues and shape them in the minds of the public in a simplified manner suggests that the media have a role in the selection and highlight of certain events or personalities or issues and the repetition of this process and the reality of the human between the media The public begins to adopt the agenda presented by these news outlets, leading them to believe and actually convince the importance of the emergence of these events and personalities and issues only [13].

This theory is used in this study because the media has the ability to highlight the importance of certain issues. In this study, it is the duty of the media to focus on the crimes of murder and to highlight their dangers to society in order to form sufficient awareness in the minds of the public.

・ The theory of analysis of the media framework

The theory of media analysis is one of the latest trends in communication studies. It allows the researcher to measure the implicit content of the media messages reflected in the media. This theory provides a regular explanation for the role of the media in shaping ideas and attitudes towards outstanding issues and its relation to the public’s cognitive and emotional responses to these issues.

This theory assumes that events do not in themselves have a particular meaning, but rather gain their significance by placing them in a framework that defines, regulates and gives them coherence through focusing on certain aspects of the subject and omitting other aspects.

The media framework is the central idea that is organized around the events of a specific issue and the media context of a matter. This means deliberate selection of certain aspects of the event or issue, making it more prominent in the media, using the method, identifying its causes, evaluating its exclusion and proposing solutions [14].

This theory is used in this study because it is the duty of the modern media to focus on the issues of crime by placing them in a framework to give them sufficient importance to form enough ideas and trends in the public to eliminate the phenomenon of crime in our societies.

・ The theory of media richness

The media richness theory describes the selection criteria among the technological media according to their degree of information richness. It shows that the effectiveness of communication depends on how much the medium is used, and focuses more on the interactive forms of two-way communication between the communicator and the future audience of the message. The more information is available, the richer the resonance is, the less ambiguous the more effective communication occurs, the richer the information is to reduce the ambiguity and create an area of common meanings using a certain means of communication [15].

This theory was used in this study in order to greatly influence the media content on the public. All the information was rich enough. In the websites, the content must be enriched with sufficient information, image and picture reports, which have a great impact on the public to reduce crime.

3. Methodology

Methodology is defined as the tool used by the researcher to reach his or her purpose or purpose and to discover the truth or access to knowledge [16].

In analyzing the content and the methodology used is the methodology of a survey of the news on crime in Palestine for 2016, by analyzing the content of the news on the crime on the websites of the Palestinian News Agency Wafa and the Wattan News Agency. The methodology of content analysis is the method we use to half the content of communication whether verbal, written, and broadcast or television is a quantitative and objective description in a systematic and systematic manner for the purpose of selecting scientific hypotheses or answering research questions [17].

A set of comparison categories has been adopted between the two sites so that categories are defined as:

The group of categories that the researcher prepares and then investigates their presence in the communication material by using the basic analytical units and their levels [18] as follows:

1) Press Art Category: A group of press arts (news, report, investigation, article, story).

2) Typographic elements: These are the following elements (images, infographic, comics).

3) Image Category: It is all about the image of a comment or whether the picture is real or archival image.

4) Source Category: The entity or place where the site relied on to receive news material.

5) The category of electronic benefits: the use of electronic features available on websites (such as hyperlinks, keywords, social networking sites and comment on the news).

6) Category of classification (site location): It is the place of publication of the article within the site and it is written (Main, main news, judiciary, local, human stories).

7) Video category: It is the use of image reports in the transmission of crime news.

This study is based mainly on the method of studying the relations between the way news coverage and the comparison of news articles according to the policy of the media institution, and coverage of crime news in Nablus, Hebron and Bethlehem due to the high incidence of killings in these governorates from other governorates, Palestinian Statistics.

Therefore, the research depends on the intentional use of the intentional sample by addressing the news of all murder committed during 2016 in Nablus, Hebron and Bethlehem.

So that the killings were divided into two parts:

・ Criminal cases murder

・ Deaths of security incidents

3.1. Research Community

The study community is defined as “all individuals, events or observations of the subject of the research”. This research is based on the news of the killings that took place in Nablus, Hebron and Bethlehem during 2016, according to the Wafa and Watan websites [19]. These governorates were selected because they are among the highest in crime, according to the Palestinian Center for Statistics, 2015.

3.2. Sample Research

The sample is defined as a subset of the study population, selected in a specific way to conduct the study, and then using the results of this sample and disseminating it to the entire community of the original study. This research is based on the intentional or intentional sample, Intentional or intentional by the researcher, given the availability of certain properties without other samples [20].

3.3. Research Tool

It means what the researcher undertakes when studying a particular topic in the framework of his commitment to the rules of the scientific method [21].

The content analysis form was used so that the content analysis form is one of the tools that collect information and basic data, especially in the media research, and it is designed to analyze the content of the scientific steps in order to become applicable [22].

The content analysis form was used to collect the necessary information as well as the other methods of collecting information because the research related to the content of the news of the murders published on two sites, Wafa and Watan.

3.4. Data Collection

-Primary Data:

The initial data are defined as data that are started to be obtained through the implementation of various stages of scientific research [23] , which is as follows:

1) The Palestinian Police News website: This is an official website of the Palestinian Police, which contains all the news and events in Palestine, moment by moment

http://www.palpolice.ps

2) The official website of WAFA: the official Palestinian news agency

http://www.wafa.ps

3) Watan Agency website: An independent Palestinian news agency

http://www.wattan.tv

-Secondary data:

Secondary data, that is data collected and reported first by others, outside ourselves scientists. In this study, secondary data obtained through the study of literature, both from books, websites, or journals the support with this research Secondary instruments are defined as data collected in prior periods and are published for various reasons that may not be very consistent with the objectives of the studies undertaken by institutions or companies from time to time for different content, scope and results compared to primary data [24]. The research is based on a collection of books and references as follows:

Book, Media Research Methods, Media research bases and principles, Information theories, Sociology of crime, punishment and correctional institutions, Explain intentional homicide, The basics of scientific research, Principles of research writing and investigation rules, Summary in the scientific research methodology, Comparative Research Methodology, Introduction to scientific research methods, Content analysis, Methodology of scientific research rules, stages and applications, Security media and crime prevention, New media concepts and theories.

3.5. Limitations of the Research

The boundaries of the study are defined as: the boundaries or barriers to which the researcher is committed to stand in the scientific research that he is writing [25]. Spatial Boundaries: This study was conducted in the West Bank and the Nablus, Hebron and Bethlehem governorates were the highest proportion of the crime from the other governorates in Palestine, based on the annual statistical report of the Palestinian Police for 2016 Where the center revealed that the city of Hebron recorded the highest rate of 5445 murders followed by the city of Nablus, where it ranked second by 3288 and in third place was the city of Bethlehem in 1963.

Time Limits: This study dealt with the 2016 killings in Palestine in Nablus, Hebron and Bethlehem as the closest period of research.

Objective Limitations: This study dealt with the subject of media coverage of crime in Palestine according to news published about the crime in both the Wafa Agency and Watan.

The Palestinian News Agency (WAFA) was established in April 1972 in accordance with the decision of the Palestinian National Council at its special session held in Cairo.

The Executive Committee of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) decided to establish the Palestinian News Agency (WAFA) on 5/6/1972 as an independent body linked structurally, politically and administratively under the chairmanship of the Executive Committee of the PLO. For any guardianship or subordination, and this decision is the legal framework governing the work of the Agency to date (http://www.wafa.ps).

An independent news site seeks to present a democratic national media and is part of a media system that we strive to promote. “Watan TV, Watan Center for Media, Watan TV Production,” is concerned with everything related to the Palestinian cause from political, economic, rights, cultural and sporting developments. Which are linked to our constants such as refugees, the right of return, prisoners, Jerusalem and the resistance of the wall, and coverage of this through the angle of e-TV (web.tv), which we singled out alongside the news and analysis supported by the image (http://www.wattan.tv)

4. Finding and Discussion

The cases of homicide in this study were divided into two categories, including murder, and security killings in the three governorates as follows:

The results on Table 1: showed that among the 18 Classification of Crimes by Type that appeared in the Palestinian news agencies (Watan and Wafa) that 12 of them were about the news of the criminal murder, 6 of which were about the news of security events.

Table 1. Classification of crimes by type.

The result of Table 2: about duplicates for the press art category a comparison between the two WAFA and Wattan agencies on the press art category and showed the following:

1) In the news category, the use of this type of art has been repeated at the WAFA website 18 times, 21 news items, or 85.7%. On the other hand, this type is repeated 24 times out of 26 news items in the Wattan Agency website, which is 92%.

2) In the report category, this type was repeated three times out of the 21 news items in WAFA, or 14.3%, while Wattan Agency repeated two out of 26 news articles by 8%.

3) In the category of investigative journalist, it is not used in either site.

4) In the article category, it is not used in either site.

5) In the press story category, it is not used in either site.

The results in Table 3: about a comparison between the two WAFA and Watan Agency sites on the topographic component category and showed the following:

1) In the photo category, the WAFA news website contains any picture, while the use of images in 24 of the 26 articles is 92%.

2) In the INFOGRAPHIC category, this category is not used in either location.

3) In the category of caricatures, this category is not used in either site.

Table 2. Table of duplicates for the press art category.

Table 3. Table of duplicates category of topographic elements.

The results in Table 4: among a comparison between the two Wafa Agency and Watan Agency sites on the photo category and showed the following:

1) The images were not used on the WAFA website, while 14 archival images were used in the articles published on Wattan Agency website (53.8%).

2) The images were not used in the WAFA website, while 10 real images were used in the articles published on Wattan Agency’s website (38.4%).

The results in Table 5 among a comparison between the two WAFA and WAN agencies on the source category showed that.

1) The WAFA website obtained the news from the police with 21 articles of origin 21% or 100% of the material, the Wattan Agency website approved 19 articles out of 26, or 73%.

2) Wafa’s website did not rely on other agencies to obtain news, while Walt’s website relied on other agencies for news coverage of 4 items out of 26, or 15.3%.

3) WAFA’s website did not rely on its own sources to obtain news, while Wattan’s website relied on its own sources to obtain news on 3 articles out of 26, or 11.5%.

The results in Table 6: about a comparison between the WAFA and WAN agencies on the e-benefits category and showed that:

1) Use the WAFA website and the Watan Hyperlinks Agency in all their news articles.

2) The keywords are not used in both sites.

3) The table above also shows a comparison between WAFA and WANA agencies

Table 4. Table of duplicates image category.

Table 5. Table of duplicates source category.

on the classification category (site location) and shows the following:

・ The video is not used in any news article in both sites

3) Wafa Agency and Wattan Agency used the link to social media sites in all their news articles.

4) The ability to comment on the news was not used on the WAFA website, while Wattan Agency used this feature fully in all its news articles.

The results in Table 7: about a comparison between WAFA and WANA agencies on the classification category (site location) and showed the following:

1) 16 news items out of 21 in the local news category received 76.2%, while 26 of the 26 articles received 100%.

2) Three news items were received on the main page of the Wafa Agency website 14.3%, while no news item was found on the main page of Wattan’s website.

3) No news item was listed under the most important news item on both sites.

4) One news item was classified under WAFA’s rating of 4.7%, while no news item was found on Wattan’s website under this classification.

5) One news story under WAFA’s news stories was reported at 4.7%, but no news item was found on Wattan’s website under this category.

The results in Table 8: among Follow-up of the Wafa Agency for crime after periods of occurrence showed that

1) On 30/6/2016, the incident of the killing of security officers in Nablus the

Table 6. Recursive table for the e-benefits category.

Table 7. Table of duplicates classification category―article location.

Table 8. Follow-up of the Wafa Agency for crime after periods of occurrence.

website of Wafa Agency continued this incident and published 4 news items.

2) On 19/9/2016 the scene of the incident of the killing of a young man from the town of Bita, Wafa Agency site continued this incident and published two news items.

3) On 18/8/2016 the incident of the death of a security officer in Nablus, continued the site of the Wafa Agency and published two news items.

4) The remaining incidents mentioned in the above table did not publish the site of the Wafa Agency except one article to inform him of each incident.

The results in Table 9: among Follow-up of the (Wattan Agency) for crime after periods of occurrence showed that

1) On 30/6/2016 the incident of the killing of two security officers in Nablus, continued the site of the Agency and the incident and published seven news items.

2) On 18/8/2016 the incident of the incident of the death of a security element in Nablus, Wattan Agency website continued this incident and published 4 news items.

3) On 8/7/2016 the incident of the killing of a young man in a park in Al-Bateen, Wattan Agency website continued this incident and published 3 news items.

4) On 28/2/2016, the incident of an elderly woman killed by her son in Hebron.

5) The other incidents mentioned in the above table were published by the Wattan Agency website only one item.

Table 9. Follow-up of the (Wattan Agency) for crime after periods of occurrence.

Answer the Research Questions

1) What is the credibility of the published news on the crime in Wafa and Wattan?

The study found that the credibility of crime cases depends first on the official bodies in their coverage of crime news. It was revealed through the analysis of the data of this study that the Wafa Agency has adopted in all its news about the crime to the official authorities at its source, ie 100% The official bodies covering the crime news were 72%, and these percentages showed that the WAFA’s credibility exceeded the Wattan agency.

2) The extent of the follow-up of the sites of Wafa Agency and the homeland agency of crime after a period of time

Through the analysis of the study data, it is clear from the news of Wattan Agency that it is superior to Wafa Agency in its follow-up to cases of crimes.

3) The extent to which the Wafa and Wattan news agencies have included information on the crime (photos Video...)?

According to the results, Wafa’s website did not contain any images, video or any of the topographic elements. Wattan Agency website contained 92% of the news related to the crime.

4) The extent to which Wafa and Watan e-benefits are used (e.g. hyperlinks, keywords, comment on news...)?

In terms of e-benefits, WAFA and Watan have used 100% of the hyperlinks and social networking sites. The Wattan agency has surpassed the Wafa Agency in containing its news on the possibility of commenting on the news. As for keywords, no keywords were found in both agencies.

5) The extent to which Wafa and the Wana Agency achieve awareness of crime?

According to the theory of cognitive enrichment, the impact of the presence of images and elements of the topography and video, etc., increases the public’s conviction of the information presented in a case.

Thus, we see in this study that the Wattan Agency has achieved more awareness by WAFA by enriching the media content. The Palestinian Police Annual Report for 2016 shows a decrease in crime cases in Palestine compared to 2015, 54 cases of crime, compared with 43 cases in 2016.

6) What kinds of news items are used on Wafa’s website and Wattan to spread crime news?

According to the results of the study, the WAFA website was based on the Al-Khobar template by 85.7% compared to 92% for Wattan Agency. As for the reports, there is a clear lack of both sites in their presentation of the news reports. The percentage of reports presented by the WAFA website was 14.3% compared to only 8% for the Wattan agency website.

With regard to humanitarian stories, articles and investigative reports, none were received at both sites.

5. Discussion of Results

The study found that the WAFA website relied on obtaining news of crime on official sources by 100%, while Wattan Agency relied on 72% of the news on the official sources in its coverage of the crime news. This indicates the preference of the WAFA website compared to the agency website A homeland in terms of credibility.

Wattan Agency’s website is the largest in terms of the use of multimedia, which raises the level of news items and has a positive impact on public awareness. This is represented by using images in the news articles at 92%.

Walt’s Web site has the advantage of using hyperlinks, and hypermedia links to social networking sites and comment on the news, while the site needs to add keywords.

There is a clear lack of both sites in the ranking of the news articles site, as a large proportion of the news items were classified in the local materials, which led to shed light on crime cases.

The study showed that both sites did not work properly in the search for the most accurate details in crime cases, as they only published simple news, and there was a lack of follow-up cases of crimes after a period of occurrence of both sites, but that was less in the agency A home compared to the Wafa Agency website.

The percentage of follow-up cases in the agency Wattan is 57%, while the site of Wafa Agency is 38%. The policy of the websites has a significant impact on the quality of the news items. The WAFA website relies on full reliance on official sources only. While Wattan Web Agency site relies less on official sources and also relies on its own sources and other agencies. This has created a kind of diversity in the nature of news articles.

According to the results, Walt’s website did not address the issue of the killing of an elderly woman in Hebron on February 28, 2016. The WAFA website dealt with all the cases and this indicates the credibility of the official sources in its coverage of the crime news.

6. Recommendations

1) The study recommends the adoption of websites on official sources in the coverage of crime news in order to reduce the occurrence of errors.

2) The study recommends the upgrading of websites and the positive impact on public awareness through multimedia and electronic properties in the sites.

3) Activate the role of investigative work in the Palestinian websites to follow up on crime cases.

4) Press coverage of crime cases amounts to addressing these issues and increasing the public's awareness of crime through human stories, reports, articles and investigative reports in depth and purpose.

5) Attempting to inculcate positive values and ideas in society reduces the risk of crime by shedding light on crime issues.

Appendix 1. Wafa Content Analysis News Questioner

Appendix 2. A Copy of Watan News

Appendix 3. A Copy of Wafa News

Cite this paper
Ukka, I. , Islam, S. and Marmo, M. (2019) Media Coverage of Crime in Palestine (Wafa and Watan Models) during the Year 2016 Comparative Analytical Study. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 7, 438-457. doi: 10.4236/jss.2019.74035.
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