OJCM  Vol.9 No.2 , April 2019
Enhancing the Mechanical Strength for a Microwave Absorption Composite Based on Graphene Nanoplatelet/Epoxy with Carbon Fibers
Abstract: Microwave absorption (MWA) materials such as graphene nanoplatelet (GNP)/epoxy are mostly used as coatings on existing structures without considering mechanical properties. In this work, we aim to enhance the mechanical strength of the composite for multifunctional potentials. We used carbon fiber (four layers) to reinforce GNP/epoxy composite (2 mm thick) and investigated their multifunctional properties with GNP loading from 3 to 7 wt%. We measured the tensile strength, hardness, and MW absorption (26.5 - 40 GHz) of composite samples. Our results showed an increase in tensile strength to 109.1 ± 7.9 MPa with 7 wt% GNP in the composite from 15.3 MPa for pure epoxy. The hardness of the composites was also substantially enhanced with GNP loading up to 7 wt%. A MW absorption ratio of 72% was attained for the sample with 7 wt% GNP loading near 40 GHz. The homogenous dispersion of GNPs in the matrix reduces the stress concentration and minimizes the influence of the defects. The high MW absorption and large transmission loss together with enhanced mechanical strength provides a novel multifunctional material for potential applications.
Cite this paper: Jahan, M. , Inakpenu, R. , Li, K. and Zhao, G. (2019) Enhancing the Mechanical Strength for a Microwave Absorption Composite Based on Graphene Nanoplatelet/Epoxy with Carbon Fibers. Open Journal of Composite Materials, 9, 230-248. doi: 10.4236/ojcm.2019.92013.

[1]   Wong, K., Pickering, S. and Rudd, C. (2010) Recycled Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composite for Electromagnetic Interference Shielding. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 41, 693-702.

[2]   Pawar, S.P., Biswas, S., Kar, G.P. and Bose, S. (2016) High Frequency Millimetre Wave Absorbers Derived from Polymeric Nanocomposites. Polymer, 84, 398-419.

[3]   Wang, W., Li, W., Gao, C., et al. (2015) A Novel Preparation of Silver-Plated Polyacrylonitrile Fibers Functionalized with Antibacterial and Electromagnetic Shielding Properties. Applied Surface Science, 342, 120-126.

[4]   Los, P., Lukomska, A. and Jeziorska, R. (2016) Metal-Polymer Composites for Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Applications. Polimery-Warsaw, 61, 663-669.

[5]   Jia, L.-C., Yan, D.-X., Cui, C.-H., et al. (2015) Electrically Conductive and Electromagnetic Interference Shielding of Polyethylene Composites with Devisable Carbon Nanotube Networks. Journal of Materials Chemistry C, 3, 9369-9378.

[6]   Li, N., Huang, Y., Du, F., et al. (2006) Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) Shielding of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Epoxy Composites. Nano Letters, 6, 1141-1145.

[7]   Eswaraiah, V., Sankaranarayanan, V., Mishra, A.K. and Ramaprabhu, S. (2010) Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) Shielding of Carbon Nanostrcutured Films. International Conference on Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Kyoto, 1-3 August 2010, 150-152.

[8]   Stankovich, S., Dikin, D.A., Dommett, G.H., et al. (2006) Graphene-Based Composite Materials. Nature, 442, 282.

[9]   Thostenson, E.T., Li, C. and Chou, T.-W. (2005) Nanocomposites in Context. Composites Science and Technology, 65, 491-516.

[10]   Kim, H., Abdala, A.A. and Macosko, C.W. (2010) Graphene/Polymer Nanocomposites. Macromolecules, 43, 6515-6530.

[11]   Skulason, H., Nguyen, H., Guermoune, A., et al. (2011) 110 GHz Measurement of Large-Area Graphene Integrated in Low-Loss Microwave Structures. Applied Physics Letters, 99, Article ID: 153504.

[12]   Zhang, H.-B., Yan, Q., Zheng, W.-G., He, Z. and Yu, Z.-Z. (2011) Tough Graphene-Polymer Microcellular Foams for Electromagnetic Interference Shielding. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 3, 918-924.

[13]   Basavaraja, C., Kim, W.J. and Do Kim, Y. (2011) Synthesis of Polyaniline-Gold/Graphene Oxide Composite and Microwave Absorption Characteristics of the Composite Films. Materials Letters, 65, 3120-3123.

[14]   Wang, C., Han, X., Xu, P., et al. (2011) The Electromagnetic Property of Chemically Reduced Graphene Oxide and Its Application as Microwave Absorbing Material. Applied Physics Letters, 98, Article ID: 072906.

[15]   Singh, V.K., Shukla, A., Patra, M.K., et al. (2012) Microwave Absorbing Properties of a Thermally Reduced Graphene Oxide/Nitrile Butadiene Rubber Composite. Carbon, 50, 2202-2208.

[16]   Adohi, B., Bychanok, D., Haidar, B. and Brosseau, C. (2013) Microwave and Mechanical Properties of Quartz/Graphene-Based Polymer Nanocomposites. Applied Physics Letters, 102, Article ID: 072903.

[17]   Wang, Z., Wei, G. and Zhao, G.L. (2013) Enhanced Electromagnetic Wave Shielding Effectiveness of Fe Doped Carbon Nanotubes/Epoxy Composites. Applied Physics Letters, 103, Article ID: 183109.

[18]   Zhang, H., Zhang, J. and Zhang, H. (2006) Numerical Predictions for Radar Absorbing Silicon Carbide Foams Using a Finite Integration Technique with a Perfect Boundary Approximation. Smart Materials and Structures, 15, 759.

[19]   Bai, X., Zhai, Y. and Zhang, Y. (2011) Green Approach to Prepare Graphene-Based Composites with High Microwave Absorption Capacity. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 115, 11673-11677.

[20]   Liang, J., Wang, Y., Huang, Y., et al. (2009) Electromagnetic Interference Shielding of Graphene/Epoxy Composites. Carbon, 47, 922-925.

[21]   Chen, L., Lu, C., Fang, Z., et al. (2013) Infrared Emissivity and Microwave Absorption Property of Sm0.5Sr0.5CoO3 Perovskites Decorated with Carbon Nanotubes. Materials Letters, 93, 308-311.

[22]   Wang, Z., Luo, J. and Zhao, G.L. (2014) Dielectric and Microwave Attenuation Properties of Graphene Nanoplatelet-Epoxy Composites. AIP Advances, 4, Article ID: 017139.

[23]   ASTM International (2008) Materials ACD-oC. Standard Test Method for Tensile Properties of Polymer Matrix Composite Materials.

[24]   Parveen, N., Mahato, N., Ansari, M.O. and Cho, M.H. (2016) Enhanced Electrochemical Behavior and Hydrophobicity of Crystalline Polyaniline@ Graphene Nanocomposite Synthesized at Elevated Temperature. Composites Part B: Engineering, 87, 281-290.

[25]   Wang, Q., Wang, Y., Meng, Q., et al. (2017) Preparation of High Antistatic HDPE/Polyaniline Encapsulated Graphene Nanoplatelet Composites by Solution Blending. RSC Advances, 7, 2796-2803.

[26]   Zare, Y. (2015) Assumption of Interphase Properties in Classical Christensen-Lo Model for Young’s Modulus of Polymer Nanocomposites Reinforced with Spherical Nanoparticles. RSC Advances, 5, 95532-95538.

[27]   Zare, Y. and Rhee, K.Y. (2017) Dependence of Z Parameter for Tensile Strength of Multi-Layered Interphase in Polymer Nanocomposites to Material and Interphase Properties. Nanoscale Research Letters, 12, 42.

[28]   Vautard, F., Fioux, P., Vidal, L., et al. (2014) Use of Plasma Polymerization to Improve Adhesion Strength in Carbon Fiber Composites Cured by Electron Beam. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 6, 1662-1674.

[29]   Martone, A., Formicola, C., Giordano, M. and Zarrelli, M. (2010) Reinforcement Efficiency of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube/Epoxy Nano Composites. Composites Science and Technology, 70, 1154-1160.

[30]   Zhao, Y., Chen, Z.-K., Liu, Y., et al. (2013) Simultaneously Enhanced Cryogenic Tensile Strength and Fracture Toughness of Epoxy Resins by Carboxylic Nitrile-Butadiene Nano-Rubber. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 55, 178-187.

[31]   Zhou, Y., Pervin, F., Rangari, V.K. and Jeelani, S. (2006) Fabrication and Evaluation of Carbon Nano Fiber Filled Carbon/Epoxy Composite. Materials Science and Engineering: A, 426, 221-228.

[32]   Wang, X., Jin, J. and Song, M. (2013) An Investigation of the Mechanism of Graphene Toughening Epoxy. Carbon, 65, 324-333.

[33]   Lee, C., Wei, X., Kysar, J.W. and Hone, J. (2008) Measurement of the Elastic Properties and Intrinsic Strength of Monolayer Graphene. Science, 321, 385-388.

[34]   Yang, S.-Y., Lin, W.-N., Huang, Y.-L., et al. (2011) Synergetic Effects of Graphene Platelets and Carbon Nanotubes on the Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Epoxy Composites. Carbon, 49, 793-803.

[35]   Yu, A., Ramesh, P., Sun, X., et al. (2008) Enhanced Thermal Conductivity in a Hybrid Graphite Nanoplatelet-Carbon Nanotube Filler for Epoxy Composites. Advanced Materials, 20, 4740-4744.

[36]   Tzounis, L., Debnath, S., Rooj, S., et al. (2014) High Performance Natural Rubber Composites with a Hierarchical Reinforcement Structure of Carbon Nanotube Modified Natural Fibers. Materials & Design, 58, 1-11.

[37]   Zhao, F. and Huang, Y. (2011) Preparation and Properties of Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane and Carbon Nanotube Grafted Carbon Fiber Hierarchical Reinforcing Structure. Journal of Materials Chemistry, 21, 2867-2870.

[38]   Yang, W., Luo, R. and Hou, Z. (2016) Effect of Interface Modified by Graphene on the Mechanical and Frictional Properties of Carbon/Graphene/Carbon Composites. Materials, 9, 492.

[39]   Saini, P., Choudhary, V., Singh, B., Mathur, R. and Dhawan, S. (2009) Polyaniline-MWCNT Nanocomposites for Microwave Absorption and EMI Shielding. Materials Chemistry and Physics, 113, 919-926.