AJPS  Vol.10 No.4 , April 2019
White (Trifolium repens L.) and Arrowleaf (Trifolium vesiculosum Savi) Clover Emergence in Varying Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda L.) Tree Alley Spacings
Abstract: Agroforestry systems have the potential to provide year-long income opportunities via the integrated forage or crop, timber, and livestock. Legumes are an attractive alternative option during the growing season when more traditional forages may not be as productive. The objective of this study was to test the establishment of arrowleaf and white clover grown under varying pine tree alley widths. In 2011, existing forage was removed in 15-yr old loblolly pine tree row alleys of different widths (3.7, 4.9, 7.3, and 9.8 m), including an open area. Arrowleaf, as an annual, was replanted in 2012. Seedlings were counted twice/year, while dry matter was measured three times/year. Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was measured in all alley widths to compare light penetration through the canopy. Hot and dry conditions occurred throughout 2012, affecting results. In 2012 and 2013, the greatest PAR for most treatments was observed in June. Seedling counts for all treatments were greatest immediately after establishment, and gradually declined throughout the course of the study. Dry matter yields increased throughout the growing season, and were greatest in arrowleaf clover in the open area on all measurement dates; however, increased weed pressure and repeated flooding affected yields. This study demonstrated that clover establishment in shady wooded areas is possible, but only under suitable environmental conditions.
Cite this paper: Adams, T. , Philipp, D. , Burner, D. , Jennings, J. , Peake, B. , Ashworth, A. , Pote, D. , Burke, J. and Rhein, R. (2019) White (Trifolium repens L.) and Arrowleaf (Trifolium vesiculosum Savi) Clover Emergence in Varying Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda L.) Tree Alley Spacings. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 10, 659-669. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2019.104048.

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