Leadership art is an important method and content of leadership science. The application of leadership art is a strong guarantee to improve the efficiency of enterprises, which is conducive to improving the flexibility of enterprise management, enriching the organizational form of enterprise management, and promoting the common development of enterprises and employees. How to make the art of leadership achieve good application effect in enterprise management has become a key problem to be solved urgently in modern enterprises  . Enterprise leaders need to know how to make good use of people and give play to the art of employing people; clear power and responsibility, give play to the art of authorization; reduce internal friction and bring into play the art of coordination  ; the art of making decisions; unite the people and give play to the art of inspiration; create culture and display demonstration art; give full play to the application value of leadership in enterprise management and promote the harmonious operation of enterprise system  .
2. The Current Problems of Enterprises
All this time, managers of companies have been looking for more effective leadership methods to promote business operations and employee growth. However, some entrepreneurs equate “management” with “leadership”  . They believed that manage the company means leading their employees to listen to their own words and do their work according and based on their own requirements which resulted with many problems in their business management  .
2.1. The Indices System Are Independent of Each Other
In some enterprises, due to the lack of overall planning, the employees are “individually responsible”, only to complete their own tasks and do not pay the attention to the overall tasks and objectives of the company. They are lack of sense of belonging and responsibility for the whole company, meanwhile with no organic cooperation and communication in their working process. All these negative affections lead the whole enterprise in a state of dispersion, lacking cohesiveness and creativity  .
2.2. Little Understanding of the Goals and Targets
Some enterprises leaders believed that their employees only have to listen to their own command and leadership, they do not need to understand the company’s goals and cultures which causes a lot of difficulties in working communications between the employees as well as make it to be difficult to have organic cooperation and communication  . All the employees just work according to their own understanding without any overall directions.
2.3. The Management System and Rules Are Not Perfect
Affected by the traditional enterprise management system, many economic management systems have not “adapted to local conditions” in the process of formulation, without fully considering the development of the enterprise itself and the prospects of development goals  . Also without substantial reform and improvement, the reform of some enterprises only stays at the surface and cannot play a practical role at all. At the same time, because of the lack of a certain supervision mechanism, this imperfect management seriously affected the implementation of the enterprise’s work  . This imperfect management method has seriously affected the implementation of all work of the enterprise. Neither the management personnel nor the grass-roots personnel are able to set strict standards for themselves, which causes great difficulties to the management of enterprises and is not conducive to the survival and development of enterprises  .
2.4. The Enterprises Division of Labor Is Not Clear Enough
Some enterprises do not set up posts according to their own development needs, resulting in certain duplication or vacancies in the functions and work of the employees. When pushing forward the work projects, they often lead to shirking responsibilities or repeatedly doing meaningless things, which affects the improvement of the enterprise efficiency.
2.5. Human Resource Management Is Not in Place
Human resource management is an important guarantee for business management and management, and plays a significant role in the enterprises  . The specific performances are as follows: Firstly, the lack of vocational training for employees by the human resources department will easily lead to low overall quality of employees and lead to low work efficiency, which is not conducive to the smooth development of the enterprise. Secondly, in the system, if there is no effective incentive system and reasonable promotion system, no scientific management process, and no performance evaluation, it is difficult to mobilize the enthusiasm and creativity of employees for work, which may even lead to the loss of talents and other phenomena, which is not conducive to the steady development of the enterprise.
2.6. Lack of Organizational Flexibility
The organizational structure of most enterprises is generally lack of flexibility and hardly adapt to certain circumstances. It is difficult for the enterprise to make comprehensive and overall arrangements for each department in the company. Most enterprises only focus on immediate interests, and do not carry out scientific construction and planning according to their own actual situation, which leads to the incorrect implementation of many jobs and missed many opportunities. In the context of today’s market economy, the lack of flexible and effective organizations is very unfavorable for enterprises.
3. The Meaning of Leadership ART
The so-called leadership art is the product of the combination of scientific theory and practice in the management enterprise. It is mainly based on the concept, cultivation, knowledge, talents, concepts, thinking and experience methods of the leaders themself, thus in the exercise of leadership functions to show the way of handling and leadership style. The art of leadership is the special ability that managers must have, and it is the expression of various comprehensive abilities of leaders, such as character, courage, ability, knowledge and foresight. In the management of actual activities, the following aspects are manifested: First, the use of art, that is, in the selection and positioning of talents, leaders should accurately judge the advantages and disadvantages of employees in the process of employing them, so as to maximize the benefits of employees and enterprises. The second is the art of authorization, that is, Managers grant their subordinate employees the right to handle relevant affairs independently. Leaders should not be greedy for power, concentrate power on themselves, and forbid employees to play a little autonomy. Third, the art of coordination, that is, managers use the art of interpersonal communication to communicate, contact and exchange emotions with employees to create a good and loving environment. The fourth is the art of decision-making, that is, make all kinds of strategic decisions that contribute to the development of the enterprise and the growth of employees according to certain procedures within the authority of the leader. The fifth is the art of motivation and incentive, that is, Leaders provide certain promotion mechanism and reward mechanism for employees, so as to enhance their work enthusiasm and enthusiasm as well as the spirit of innovation and creation. Sixth is the demonstration art, that is, Leaders should lead by example to promote the spiritual and cultural connotation of the enterprise and the goal of the enterprise. It can be seen from the above that leadership is an indispensable part of the enterprise development. Leaders, as the core members of enterprises, shoulder greater responsibilities. Under the background of the development of humanized management and flexible management concept, the use of leadership art is the fundamental requirement for enterprises to improve employment efficiency and promote enterprises to go to a larger market. It is also the internal power and source of enterprises’ competitive advantages.
4. The Characteristics of Leadership Art
As a more applied leadership art, how to use it is a technical skill, which has different ways of expression in many cases and is not invariable and has fixed standardization. While playing its role in value, it must also reflect its scientific nature. There is a dialectical and unified relationship between leadership art and leadership science. There is a dialectical and unified relationship between the leadership art and the leadership science. The leadership art is reflected in the leader’s handling of various problems in the enterprise, which is affected by the leader’s own knowledge level, cultural literacy, management experience and other factors. The more skilled the leader is in using the art of leadership, the greater the help to the business, and vice versa. If managers are confined to perceptual experience, the connotation of leadership cannot play its scientific role. Therefore, leaders’ mastery of the connotation and characteristics of the leadership art will contribute to the scientific planning and management of enterprises and promote the sustainable development of the enterprises.
The main features of leadership art include the followings:
1) Non-modular features
Leaders will face various dynamic situations in their work. How to deal with and handle the problems that arise is the ability that managers must possess. Facing the problems and difficulties, there are different solutions to different issues. The methods that the leaders used should not be the same, it has the characteristics of non-pattern.
2) Creative features
Leadership art is not a fixed pattern. It will show different styles due to the difference of leaders’ knowledge and skills, life experience, and styles of doing things. Managers make leadership art show unique creativity through their own subjective initiative.
3) Emotional characteristics
Managers and the people being managed are all human beings with feelings, so it is inevitable for leaders to mix some personal feelings in the process of exercising their leadership rights. This kind of emotion is also the difference between the leadership art and the traditional leadership style. Under the leadership of the emotional leadership art, it is conducive to help the enterprise become a warm family and make employees have a sense of belonging.
5. The Influence of Leadership on Modern Business Management
5.1. To Improve the Flexibility of Enterprise Management
Schema-less characteristics of leadership can help leaders to adjust according to the enterprise strategy environment change, and thus enhanced the flexibility and efficiency of management, also let enterprise managers are no longer at a fixed response management situation of thinking, the initiative to create a more conducive to the development of enterprise organization management situation, and rely on the necessary measures and management system to carry out enterprise management activities.
5.2. It Is Conducive to Enriching the Forms of Enterprise Management and Organization
The changes of enterprise scale, competitive environment and management activities need the standardization and diversification of enterprise management organization forms and management methods. However, the traditional control leadership method concentrates power on a few senior leaders with high positions and titles, who have relatively limited management ability and knowledge. The application of leadership to a certain extent subverts the traditional pyramid’s management mode, adopt flexible characteristics of the flat organizational structure of enterprise resource management, management environment, management objectives and management way to change, not only can improve the enterprise management team knowledge structure and ability structure, the formation of cooperation and interaction of team management, also due to the reduced the information transmission chain, to ensure the authenticity of the information transmission, flexibility, sharpness, help to improve the efficiency of information transmission rate and transmission, improve enterprise management efficiency.
5.3. To Promote the Common Development of Employees and Enterprises
Leadership based on humanistic ideas, pay attention to employees’ personal development, and in motivating art guidance, employees can form and the common understanding of enterprise development, and by learning to improve their own quality, to apply professional knowledge and enterprise production practice, to realize the combination of theory and practice, not only enhance the staff own value, but also for enterprise management or development provide stronger vitality, at the same time, inspire staff potential. Material, authorization, emotion and other leaders artistic elements of the integrated use of, can meet the demand of employee material, promote employees to correctly identify the personal value, help employees to adjust at the same time, build up confidence and responsibility, with a more full of enthusiasm and creativity to participate in the activities of enterprise, produce positive role to enterprise management goals.
6. How to Use Leadership Art Skills
6.1. Advocating Enterprise Culture and Art
Corporate culture refers to the basic beliefs and cultural cognition that are recognized and generally accepted by employees and the outside world through the advocacy of corporate leaders in the long-term development of an enterprise. Of course, enterprise culture cannot remain superficial. Leaders must practice and become propagandists and practitioners of the enterprise culture. To become a first-class company, you must have a first-class enterprise culture. Spiritual power can greatly promote the development of people and inspire people. Through publicity, every employee can keep the corporate culture in mind and the ideology can be reflected in the practice of employees. This is not only the foundation of the enterprise, but also the practice crystallization of the leader and the guidepost of the enterprise. Therefore, leaders must construct the institutional culture and material culture of the enterprise in practice according to the enterprise’s own development goal and mode, so as to improve the enterprise’s influence, soft power and spiritual motivation of the employees.
6.2. The Art of Knowing How to Make Good Use of People
Knowing people well and doing well can maximize the creativity and enthusiasm of enterprise staff. Therefore, in order to give full play to the role of leadership in management, enterprise leaders must innovate the concept of talent, and ensure the integrity and functionality of talent team structure with artistic and scientific employing art.
First of all, reform the concept of selection. The first step of enterprise employing persons is to find and select talents. Therefore, enterprise leaders must give full play to their talent recruitment to ensure that talents can meet the needs of enterprises. The selection of talents must follow the following principles:
1) The principle of both ability and political integrity. The selection of talents should not only focus on the professional ethics of talents, but also on their corresponding professional knowledge or professional ability to ensure that they can complete various tasks with high quality and efficiency.
2) The principle of practicality, as a key way to identify talent and principles for business leaders to prudence, on the basis of analysis of enterprise internal and external environment, the management strategy, production technology, enterprise culture and so on various aspects of observation, the present situation and problems of talent into real work for talent to make accurate judgments, closed-minded of avoid by all means.
3) The principle of not sticking to one pattern. Talent selection should not be limited to specific specifications. The enterprise manager should abandon using the talent by their diploma or seniority, avoid nepotism or submission, but to value the talent’s integrity, performance, effectiveness and meritocracy.
Secondly, reform the concept of employment. The rational use of talents as the central link of the modern enterprise leadership employment art, must do according to the matter of employment, according to the enterprise work to determine the post demand, to the post selection of suitable talents. To Use the person’s advantage, leaders are required to find ways to play to their employees’ strengths, avoid overqualified personnel or overqualified personnel, and make full use of talents. Without doubt, leaders should give full trust when choosing and appointing employees, be clear about their responsibilities and use them freely to encourage their creativity.
6.3. Clear Power and Responsibility, Play the Art of Authorization
Power is the sign of enterprise leadership, whether the right use of power to become an important condition for the art of leadership. First of all, it is necessary to use power reasonably. Leaders should help enterprises to seek better development within the scope of their own power, deal with all kinds of relations in the enterprise, improve the rules and regulations of the enterprise and the supervision system, prohibit the abuse and appointment of power, so as to promote the development of the enterprise. At the same time, managers should reasonably use power within the scope of the law, and ensure that the operation of power has laws to follow, rules to follow, so that the decision-making can serve the public. Secondly, it is necessary to properly delegate power. Leaders’ energy is limited, and they cannot do everything by themselves. Therefore, some power should be delegated to the grass-roots level, so that subordinate employees have the right to handle some affairs independently. This is not to divide the power of leadership, but to give play to the expertise of employees, improve their sense of responsibility, and promote the orderly operation of the whole enterprise. In the process of delegating power, the leaders should insist to the principle of “never doubt the person you hire, never hire the person you doubt”, to avoid doubts and distrust of employees, and to avoid discouraging the enthusiasm of employees. To clarify the duties and functions of each post, establish a sound supervision system to ensure the operation of the enterprise.
6.4. Learn to Communicate
Communication will promote communication between leaders and employees, and gain understanding and support from employees. With the help of effective communication art, leaders should listen to employees’ Suggestions and opinions on the company, understand employees’ working methods and habits, and guide them to say what they are dissatisfied with the company, so as to make some changes, so as to enhance the cohesion and creativity of the company, and improve employees’ sense of belonging and security of the company. Making the employees feel to be needed, valued and understood by the enterprise, and improve their work enthusiasm. However, managers should pay attention to their attitude when communicating with employees and avoid communicating with employees in a condescending tone.
6.5. Reduce Internal Friction, Play the Art of Coordination
In the process of enterprise management, the intricate interpersonal relationship is handled properly, which is helpful to eliminate differences and improve enterprise cohesion and work efficiency. First, choose the right way of coordination, which mainly consists of oral coordination, written coordination and meeting coordination. Oral coordination is quick and convenient, while written coordination and meeting coordination are serious and conscientious. In management practice, leaders should use these three methods comprehensively. Secondly, the use of humanized coordination skills, the interpersonal skills are an important component of the art of coordination in leadership. Leadership should be people-oriented, based on cooperation and trust, and avoid overruling people with power. At the same time, pay attention to the employee’s will, it can enhance the communication between leaders and members. In addition, it can help employees with resistant psychology accurately understand the purpose of making management decisions and the role of the enterprise in personal welfare and growth through educational activities or training of the enterprise. Finally, contradiction should be handled scientifically. Differences and conflicts may occur in the interpersonal relationship in an enterprise, and handling conflicts is an important part of leadership. Therefore, when the enterprise leaders coordinate the contradictions, they should adopt the skills of instant evaluation and instant judgment. In view of the non-principle problems, we should adopt the methods of seeking common ground while reserving differences and fuzzy processing, so as to dilute the contradiction and create a harmonious atmosphere.
Under the current market economy background, each enterprise is facing the intense competition and the challenge. As the soft power of a company, leadership plays an important and irreplaceable role in the development of an enterprise. Therefore, the leadership must be diligent in learning, with a sense of innovation, and actively seek for the unique leadership for the enterprise.
Under the continuous innovation of managers, employees can be led to make further development on the basis of enterprise culture, which is consistent with the direction of enterprise management and lays the material and cultural foundation for the improvement of enterprise competitiveness.
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