OJAS  Vol.9 No.2 , April 2019
Socioeconomic Characteristics of the Community and Importance of Camel and other Livestock Species in Tahitay-Adiyabo District, Tigray Region in the Northern Periphery of Ethiopia
Abstract: The study was undertaken in the northern periphery of the country, Tigray region, north-west Tigray zone, Tahitay Adiyabo district from February to March, 2017. For this study, four Kebeles were selected purposively based on the presence of two major community groups (Tigrayans and Kunama) and presence of camel species and other livestock species. Seventy-two (72) households per district, of which 38 households from two kebeles for Kunama community and 34 households from two kebeles for Tigrayan community groups were selected randomly. A software package of SAS (2008) was employed to generate descriptive statistics for qualitative and quantitative data. As the study revealed, three-fifth and two-fifth of the respondents in the study area were illiterate and attended primary education respectively. The two community groups were significantly (P < 0.05) different on educational status and Tigriyans respondents were more educated than the other counterpart. More than 2/3 children (7 - 17 years of age) of the respondents in the study area were attended school. Exceptionally, more than 75% of the children for Tigriyan community group in the district were attended school whereas 3/5th of Kunama community children were attended school education. Average family size per household in the study area was 6.22 ± 0.45 and significant (P < 0.05) difference was observed in the two community groups which was higher in Tigriyan community (7.23). Livestock husbandry practices (breeding objectives, herding, milking and marketing) were decided entirely by husband or both and the decision by wife alone was reported to be non-existent in the study area. From all respondents of Kunama community, more than a quarter of them produce household income majorly from their livestock and secondarily from crop. Livelihood diversification (off-farm activities) was almost non-existent in the study area. The study shows that majority of the respondents own ruminant animals and camel. Surprisingly, in the current study, all of the respondents own camel species but camel milk marketing was the main problem of Kunama community. From the Kunama community group, quarter of the respondents own camel and goat only. This study suggested that attention should be given for child education in Kunama community and absence of camel milk marketing may affect the utilization of the species and as a consequence, it would extinct. Hence, in order to conserve this species, camel milk market problem should be solved. Besides, in the study area, camel is the important species for all the communities and attention should be given to improve camel productivity.
Cite this paper: Tadesse, Y. (2019) Socioeconomic Characteristics of the Community and Importance of Camel and other Livestock Species in Tahitay-Adiyabo District, Tigray Region in the Northern Periphery of Ethiopia. Open Journal of Animal Sciences, 9, 217-233. doi: 10.4236/ojas.2019.92019.

[1]   Kinfe, G.B., Seamus, O.R., Edward, L. and Bodo, S. (2016) Cattle Farmers’ Perceptions of Risk and Risk Management Strategies: Evidence from Northern Ethiopia. MPRA Paper No. 74954.

[2]   Astatke, A. and Mohamed Saleem, M.A. (1996) Draught Animal Power for Land-Use Intensification in the Ethiopian Highlands. FAO World Animal Review, 86, 3-11.

[3]   Ridgewel, A., Getachew, M., and Flintan, F. (2007) Rangeland and Resource Management in Ethiopia, Gender and Pastoralism, Volume, 1. SOS Sahel Ethiopia, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

[4]   Gebreegziabher, K. and Tadesse, T. (2014) Risk Perception and Management in Small Holder Dairy Farming in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Journal of Risk Research, 17, 367-381.

[5]   Fredu, N., Erik, M., Jozef, D., Mitiku, H., Jan, N. and Eric, T. (2010) Rural Poverty Dynamics and Impact of Intervention Programs upon Chronic and Transitory Poverty in Northern Ethiopia. African Development Review, 22, 92-114.

[6]   Barrett, C.B., McPeak, J.G., Luseno, W., Little, P.D., Osterloh, S.M., Mahmoud, H. and Getachew, G. (2004) Pastoralist Livestock Marketing Behavior in Northern Kenya and Southern Ethiopia: An Analysis of Constraints Limiting Off-Take Rates (2004). Economics Faculty Scholarship, 84.

[7]   McPeak, J. (2005) Individual and Collective Rationality in Pastoral Production: Evidence from Northern Kenya. Human Ecology, 33, 171-197.

[8]   Yosef, T., Mengistu, U., Kesari, P., Mohammed, Y.K., Kebede, K., Solomon, A. and Tadelle, D. (2015) Socioeconomic Profile and Gender Characteristics in Relation to Camel Management Practices in the Pastoral Communities of Ethiopia. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development, 6.

[9]   Gidey, M., Tadesse, B., Maria, A.S., Piero, B. and Gidey, Y. (2015) Traditional Medicinal Plants Used by Kunama Ethnic Group in Northern Ethiopia. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 9, 494-509.

[10]   ENMA (Ethiopian National Meteorology Agency) (2014) Climatic Bulletin.

[11]   Araya, G., Oscar, D.K., Solomon, Y., Essayas, A., Aviad, M., Habte, T., Meshesha, B., Alon, W., Asrat, H. and Teshome, G.M. (2015) Species Composition of Phlebotomine Sand Flies and Bionomics of Phlebotomus Orientalis (Diptera Psychodidae) in an Endemic Focus of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Tahtay Adiyabo District, Northern Ethiopia. Parasites and Vectors, 8, 248.

[12]   Alemu, A., Esmael, N., Dessie, Y. and Hamdu, K. (2013) Knowledge, Attitude and Practices Related to Visceral Leishmaniasis among Residents in Addis Zemen Town, South Gondar, and Northwest Ethiopia. BMC Public Health, 13, 382.

[13]   SAS (Statistical Analysis System) (2008) Statistical Analysis System (SAS/STAT Program, Version 9.1). SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC.

[14]   Donald, A.R. (2015) Cultural Orientation Research Center (COR). COR Center Refugee Backgrounder, No. 3.

[15]   Mekides, W., Belachew, E. and Semaw, F. (2015) Under Nutrition and Associated Factors Among Under-Five Age Children of Kunama Ethnic Groups in Tahtay Adiyabo Woreda, Tigray Regional State, Ethiopia: Community Based Study. International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences, 4, 277-288.

[16]   Alefe, T. (2014) Phenotypic Characterization of Indigenous Goat Types and Their Production System in Shabelle Zone, South Eastern Ethiopia. M.Sc. Thesis, Haramaya University, Haramaya, Ethiopia.

[17]   Mahilet, D. (2012) Characterization of Hararghe Highland Goat and Their Production System in Eastern Hararghe. M.Sc. Thesis, Haramaya University, Haramaya, Ethiopia.

[18]   McGregor, S.G., Yin, B.C., Santiago, C., Paul, G., Linda, R. and Barbara, S. (2007) Developmental Potential in the First 5 Years for Children in Developing Countries. The Lancet, 369, 60-70.

[19]   CSA (Central Statistical Agency). (2011) Agricultural Sample Survey, Volume 2: Report on Livestock and Livestock Characteristics (Prevent Peasant Holdings), Statistical Bulletin 505. Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, Central Statistical Agency, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

[20]   Saba, A., Gebremeskel, M. and Ashenafi, S. (2015) Magnitude of Chronic Energy Deficiency and Its Associated Factors among Women of Reproductive Age in the Kunama Population, Tigray, Ethiopia, in 2014. BMC Nutrition, 1, 12.

[21]   Diba, D. (2017) Phenotypic Characterization of Indigenous Goat Type, Breeding and Husbandry Practices in Odo shakiso and Adola Districts, Ethiopia. Haramaya University, Haramaya, Ethiopia.

[22]   Belete, A. (2013) On Farm Phenotypic Characterization of Indigenous Goat Types and Their Production System in Bale Zone of Oromia Region, Ethiopia. Haramaya University, Haramaya, Ethiopia.

[23]   Simenew, K., Dejen, T., Tesfaye, S., Fekadu, R., Tesfu, K. and Fufa, D. (2013) Characterization of Camel Production System in Afar Pastoralists, North East Ethiopia. Asian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 5, 16-24.

[24]   Yosef, T., Mengistu, U., Solomon, A., Mohammed, Y.K. and Kefelegn, K. (2013) Camel and Cattle Population Dynamics and Livelihood Diversification as a Response to Climate Change in Pastoral Areas of Ethiopia. Livestock Research for Rural Development, 25.

[25]   Ngowi, E.E. (2008) Socio-Economic Values and Traditional Management Practices of Tarime Zebu Cattle in Tanzania. Livestock Research for Rural Development, 20, Article No. 94.

[26]   Kassahun, A. (2011) Assessment of Camel Production Practices in Berhale Woreda, Afar Region. M.Sc. Thesis, Haramaya University, Haramaya, Ethiopia.

[27]   Fida, H. and Amer, M. (2013) Gender Mainstreamed in Improved Pastoralism. IUCN, Global Drylands Initiative, Rowa.

[28]   Gebreegziabher, T., Nyssen, J., Govaerts, B., Getnet, F., Behailu, M., Haile, M. and Deckers, J. (2008) Contour Furrows for in Situ Soil and Water Conservation, Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Soil & Tillage Research, 103, 257-264.

[29]   Headey, D., Taffesse, A.S. and You, L. (2014) Diversification and Development in Pastoralist Ethiopia. World Development, 56, 200-213.

[30]   Zigale, T. (2016) Constraints of Pastoral and Agro-Pastoral Livelihood Diversification in Eastern Ethiopia: The Case of Mieso District, Oromia Regional State. International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research, 26, 267-274.

[31]   Gordon, A. and Craig, C. (2001) Rural Non-Farm Activities and Poverty Alleviation in Sub-Saharan Africa (NRI Policy Series 14). Natural Resources Institute Policy Series. Natural Resources Institute, Chatham Maritime, Kent.

[32]   Melaku, T. and Getachew, A. (2013) Camel in Ethiopia. Ethiopian Veterinary Association, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.