JTTs  Vol.9 No.2 , April 2019
Intermodal Terminal Localisation Using a Linear Programming Approach: The Case Study of Togo and West African Landlocked Countries
Abstract: In this paper, four potential cities to host an intermodal terminal for containers flowing through the Togolese transport corridor are examined. The transport cost minimization through the corridor is the main objective. Consequently, the transport modes that offer the least cost to the transport supply chain are proposed. To attain this goal the paper aims to identify the optimal location for an intermodal terminal on the Togolese corridor, by using the mathematical linear programming model. For this, three transport scenarios are analyzed, the rail, the road, and the combination of these two transport modes to each of the landlocked countries (LLCs) capital cities of Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger. Data of the average transport cost per mode, the cargo demand of the LLCs, and the distances from origin to destinations are input in the LINGO software. Based on the optimization results, we find that among the preselected terminals, the city of Mango located at 550 km in the northern part of the country is the optimal host location for an intermodal terminal along the Togolese corridor. The results of this study may be helpful to transport policy makers in the quest of rendering better servicing to the landlocked countries.
Cite this paper: Kalgora, B. (2019) Intermodal Terminal Localisation Using a Linear Programming Approach: The Case Study of Togo and West African Landlocked Countries. Journal of Transportation Technologies, 9, 215-231. doi: 10.4236/jtts.2019.92014.

[1]   Snaddon, D.R. (2001) Competition in Transportation—A Literature Analysis. Technovation, 21, 375-383.

[2]   Parola, F. and Sciomachen, A. (2005) Intermodal Container Flows in a Port System Network: Analysis of Possible Growths via Simulation Models. International Journal of Production Economics, 97, 75-88.

[3]   Jean-Paul, R. (2017) The Geography of Transport Systems. Fourth Edition, Routledge, New York, 440 p.

[4]   Anny-del-Mar, A.-A. and José, M.-F. (2017) Intermodal Transport in Freight Distribution: A Literature Review. Journal of Transport Review, 37, 782-807.

[5]   UNCTAD (2003) African Ports: Reform and the Role of the Private Sector. Secretariat of UNCTAD (UNCTAD/SDTE/TLB/5).

[6]   Chang, Y.H. (1998) Logistical Management. Hwa-Tai Bookstore Ltd.

[7]   Amjadi, A. and Yates, A. (1995) Have Transport Costs Contributed to the Relative Decline of African Exports? Some Preliminary Evidence. Policy Research Working Paper No. 1559, World Bank, Washington DC.

[8]   Limão, N. and Venables, A.J. (2001) Infrastructure, Geographical Disadvantage, Transport Costs and Trade. The World Bank Economic Review, 15, 451-479.

[9]   Kalgora, B. and Christian, T.M. (2016) The Financial and Economic Crisis, Its Impacts on the Shipping Industry, Lessons to Learn: The Container-Ships Market Analysis. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 4, 38-44.

[10]   Luis, F. and Julius, S. (1995) Measuring the Performance of Intermodal Freight Terminals. Journal Transportation Planning and Technology, 17, 269-280.

[11]   Bart, W.W., Enno, M. and Peter, N. (2007) Intermodal Freight Terminals: An Analysis of the Terminal Market. Journal of Transportation Planning and Technology, 23, 105-128.

[12]   UNCTAD (2004) Assessment of a Seaport Land Interface: An Analytical Framework. UNCTAD Secretariat, UNCTAD/SDTE/TLB/MISC/2004/3.

[13]   Peng, G., Wenming, C., Yi, W. and Nils, B. (2018) Gantry Crane Scheduling in Intermodal Rail-Road Container Terminals. International Journal of Production Research, 56, 5419-5436.

[14]   European Conference of Ministers of Transport (1993) Terminology on Combined Transport.

[15]   Macharis, C. and Bontekoning, Y.M. (2004) Opportunities for OR in Intermodal Freight Transport Research: A Review. European Journal Operation Research, 153, 400-416.

[16]   Bärthel, F. and Johan (2004) Developing Intermodal Transport for Small Flows over Short Distances. Journal of Transportation Planning and Technology, 27, 403-424.

[17]   Meyrick and Associates (2006) National Intermodal Terminal Study. Australian Department of Transport and Regional Services, Publication 10781.

[18]   Limbourg, S. and Jourquin, B. (2008) Optimal Rail-Road Container Terminal Locations on the European Network. Transportation Research Part E, 45, 551-563.

[19]   Mayer, G. and Wagner, B. (2002) Hublocator: An Exact Solution Method for the Multiple Allocation Hub Location Problems. Computers and Operations Research, 29, 715-739.

[20]   O’Kelly, M.E. (1986) The Location of Interacting Hub Facilities. Transportation Science, 20, 92-106.

[21]   O’Kelly, M.E. and Harvey, J.M. (1991) Solution Strategies for the Single Facility Minimax Hub Location Problem. The Journal of the Regional Science Association International, 70, 367-380.

[22]   Aykin, T. and Brown, G.F. (1992) Interacting New Facilities and Location-Allocation Problem. Transportation Science, 3, 212-222.

[23]   O’Kelly, M.E. (1992) A Clustering Approach to the Planar Hub Location Problem. Annals of Operations Research, 40, 339-353.

[24]   Klincewicz, J.G. (1991) Heuristics for the p-Hub Location Problem. European Journal of Operation Research, 53, 25-37.

[25]   Klincewicz, J.G. (1992) Avoiding Local Optima in the p-Hub Location Problem Using Tabu Search and GRASP. Annals of Operations Research, 40, 283-302.

[26]   Skorin-Kapov, D. and Skorin-Kapov, J. (1994) On Tabu Search for the Location of Interacting Hub Facilities, Forthcoming in European. Operational Research, 73, 502-509.

[27]   O’Kelly, M.E., et al. (1995) Lower Bounds for the Hub Location Problem. Location Science, 41, 713-721.

[28]   van Dam, K.H., Zofia, L., Luis, F. and Ackchai, S. (2007) Planning the Location of Intermodal Freight Hubs: An Agent Based Approach. IEEE International Conference on Networking, Sensing and Control, London, 15-17 April 2007, 187-192.

[29]   Pekin, E. and Macharis, C. (2007) A GIS-Based Location Analysis Model for Intermodal Terminals. International Logistics and Supply Chain Congress, Istanbul.

[30]   Kayikci, Y. (2010) A Conceptual Model for Intermodal Freight Logistics Centre Location Decisions. The Asian Journal of Shipping and Logistics, 27, 331-335.

[31]   Bogusz, W., Dariusz, M., Leszek, C. and Igor, H. (2016) The Concept of the Development of Intermodal Transport Network Illustrated by Polish Market. NAŠE MORE: Znanstveni časopis za more i pomorstvo, 64, 33-37.

[32]   Polo, M. II (2013) Annual Work Programme. Annex 1.

[33]   European Commission (2001) European Transport Policy for 2010. Time to Decide. COM 370 Final.

[34]   Arnold, P., Peeters, D. and Thomas, I. (2004) Modelling a Rail/Road Intermodal Transportation System. Transportation Research Part E, 40, 255.

[35]   Jencek, P. and Twrdy, E. (2008) Development of Regional Transport Logistics Terminal. Transport Logistics Approach, 4, 239-249.

[36]   PMAWCA (2016).

[37]   Nadoun Coulibaly (2019) Togo: Faure Gnassingbé lance officiellement son PND. Economie and Finance, Politique Economique du 03 mars 2019 à 16h06, Jeune Afrique.

[38]   Borderless (2016) Regional Integration through the Development of Trade and Transport. Executive Secretariat, Borderless Alliance.

[39]   Rajiv, D., Rabindra, N.B., Behzad, G. and Aditya, P. (2011) Optimal Pricing and Terminal Location for a Rail-Truck Intermodal Service—A Case Study. International Journal of Logistics Research and Applications, 14, 335-349.

[40]   Schrijver, A. (1998) Theory of Linear and Integer Programming. John Wiley and Sons, Hoboken.