OJCM  Vol.9 No.2 , April 2019
Towards Reliability-Enhanced Mechanical Characterization of Non-Crimp Fabrics: How to Compare Two Force-Displacement Curves against a Null Material Hypothesis
Abstract: Detailed characterization of fabric reinforcements is necessary to ensure the quality of manufactured composite parts, and subsequently to prevent structural failure during service. A lack of consensus and standardization exists in selecting test methods for the mechanical characterization of fabrics. Moreover, in reality, during any experimentation there are sources of uncertainties which may result in inconsistencies in the interpretation of data and the comparison of different testing methods. The aim of this article is to show how simple statistical data analysis methods may be used to enhance the characterization of composite fabrics under individual and combined loading modes while accounting for inherent material/test uncertainties. Results using a typical glass non-crimp fabric (NCF) show that, statistically, there are significant differences between the warp and weft direction responses of a presumably balanced NCF under all deformation modes, with weft yarns being generally stiffer. Moreover, the statistical significance of warp-weft couplings under both simultaneous and sequential biaxial-shear loading modes became statistically evident, when compared to a pure biaxial deformation.
Cite this paper: Sultana, S. , Rashidi, A. , Islam, M. , Crawford, B. and Milani, A. (2019) Towards Reliability-Enhanced Mechanical Characterization of Non-Crimp Fabrics: How to Compare Two Force-Displacement Curves against a Null Material Hypothesis. Open Journal of Composite Materials, 9, 164-182. doi: 10.4236/ojcm.2019.92008.

[1]   Launay, J., Hivet, G., Duong, A.V. and Boisse, P. (2008) Experimental Analysis of the Influence of Tensions on in Plane Shear Behaviour of Woven Composite Reinforcements. Composites Science and Technology, 68, 506-515.

[2]   Strong, A.B. (2008) Fundamentals of Composites Manufacturing: Materials, Methods and Applications.

[3]   Edgren, F., Mattsson, D., Asp, L.E. and Varna, J. (2004) Formation of Damage and Its Effects on Non-Crimp Fabric Reinforced Composites Loaded in Tension. Composites Science and Technology, 64, 675-692.

[4]   Creech, G. and Pickett, A. (2006) Meso-Modelling of Non-Crimp Fabric Composites for Coupled Drape and Failure Analysis. Journal of Materials Science, 41, 6725-6736.

[5]   Guagliano, M. and Riva, E. (2001) Mechanical Behaviour Prediction in Plain Weave Composites. The Journal of Strain Analysis for Engineering Design, 36, 153-162.

[6]   Cao, J., Akkerman, R., Boisse, P., Chen, J., Cheng, H., De Graaf, E., Gorczyca, J., Harrison, P., Hivet, G. and Launay, J. (2008) Characterization of Mechanical Behavior of Woven Fabrics: Experimental Methods and Benchmark Results. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 39, 1037-1053.

[7]   Zhao, X., Liu, G., Gong, M., Song, J., Zhao, Y. and Du, S. (2018) Effect of Tackification on In-Plane Shear Behaviours of Biaxial Woven Fabrics in Bias Extension Test: Experiments and Finite Element Modeling. Composites Science and Technology, 159, 33-41.

[8]   Sargent, J., Chen, J., Sherwood, J., Cao, J., Boisse, P., Willem, A., Vanclooster, K., Lomov, S.V., Khan, M. and Mabrouki, T. (2010) Benchmark Study of Finite Element Models for Simulating the Thermostamping of Woven-Fabric Reinforced Composites. International Journal of Material Forming, 3, 683-686.

[9]   Zampaloni, M.A., Pourboghrat, F. and Yu, W. (2004) Stamp Thermo-Hydroforming: A New Method for Processing Fiber-Reinforced Thermoplastic Composite Sheets. Journal of Thermoplastic Composite Materials, 17, 31-50.

[10]   Abdiwi, F., Harrison, P. and Yu, W. (2013) Modelling the Shear-Tension Coupling of Woven Engineering Fabrics. Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, 2013, Article ID: 786769.

[11]   Taha, I., Abdin, Y. and Ebeid, S. (2013) Comparison of Picture Frame and Bias-Extension Tests for the Characterization of Shear Behaviour in Natural Fibre Woven Fabrics. Fibers and Polymers, 14, 338-344.

[12]   Ray, D., Bose, N.R., Mohanty, A.K. and Misra, M. (2007) Modification of the Dynamic Damping Behaviour of Jute/Vinylester Composites with Latex Interlayer. Composites Part B: Engineering, 38, 380-385.

[13]   Yin, H., Peng, X., Du, T. and Guo, Z. (2014) Draping of Plain Woven Carbon Fabrics over a Double-Curvature Mold. Composites Science and Technology, 92, 64-69.

[14]   Boisse, P., Borr, M., Buet, K. and Cherouat, A. (1997) Finite Element Simulations of Textile Composite Forming Including the Biaxial Fabric Behaviour. Composites Part B: Engineering, 28, 453-464.

[15]   Chen, J.W., Zhao, B., Chen, W.J., Wang, M.Y., Guan, X.Y. and Wu, S.H. (2018) Response Surface Analysis of Biaxial Mechanical Properties and Elastic Parameters for Woven Fabric Composites. Journal of Industrial Textiles, in press.

[16]   Kawabata, S. and Niwa, M. (1989) Fabric Performance in Clothing and Clothing Manufacture. Journal of the Textile Institute, 80, 19-50.

[17]   Chen, W., Gao, C., Zhang, D., Wang, L. and Qiu, Z. (2018) A New Biaxial Tensile Shear Test Method to Measure Shear Behaviour of Coated Fabrics for Architectural Use. Composite Structures, 203, 943-951.

[18]   Peng, X. and Cao, J. (2002) A Dual Homogenization and Finite Element Approach for Material Characterization of Textile Composites. Composites Part B: Engineering, 33, 45-56.

[19]   Nishi, M., Hirashima, T. and Kurashiki, T. (2014) Textile Composite Reinforcement Forming Analysis Considering Out-of-Plane Bending Stiffness and Tension Dependent In-Plane Shear Behavior. ECCM16—16th European Conference on Composite Materials, Seville, Spain, 22-26 June 2014, 22-26.

[20]   Dobrich, O., Gereke, T., Diestel, O., Krzywinski, S. and Cherif, C. (2014) Decoupling the Bending Behavior and the Membrane Properties of Finite Shell Elements for a Correct Description of the Mechanical Behavior of Textiles with a Laminate Formulation. Journal of Industrial Textiles, 44, 70-84.

[21]   Gereke, T., Dobrich, O., Hübner, M. and Cherif, C. (2013) Experimental and Computational Composite Textile Reinforcement Forming: A Review. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 46, 1-10.

[22]   Colman, A., Bridgens, B., Gosling, P., Jou, G. and Hsu, X. (2014) Shear Behaviour of Architectural Fabrics Subjected to Biaxial Tensile Loads. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 66, 163-174.

[23]   Willems, A., Lomov, S.V., Verpoest, I. and Vandepitte, D. (2008) Optical Strain Fields in Shear and Tensile Testing of Textile Reinforcements. Composites Science and Technology, 68, 807-819.

[24]   Harrison, P., Abdiwi, F., Guo, Z., Potluri, P. and Yu, W. (2012) Characterising the Shear—Tension Coupling and Wrinkling Behaviour of Woven Engineering Fabrics. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 43, 903-914.

[25]   Harrison, P. (2012) Normalisation of Biaxial Bias Extension Test Results Considering Shear Tension Coupling. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 43, 1546-1554.

[26]   Lee, W., Byun, J., Um, M., Cao, J. and Boisse, P. (2009) Coupled Non-Orthogonal Constitutive Model for Woven Fabric Composites. 17th International Conference on Composite Materials, ICCM-17, Edinburgh, United Kingdom, 27-29 July 2009, 27-29.

[27]   Lee, W., Um, M., Byun, J., Boisse, P. and Cao, J. (2010) Numerical Study on Thermo-Stamping of Woven Fabric Composites Based on Double-Dome Stretch Forming. International Journal of Material Forming, 3, 1217-1227.

[28]   Cavallaro, P.V., Quigley, C.J., Johnson, A.R. and Sadegh, A.M. (2004) Effects of Coupled Biaxial Tension and Shear Stresses on Decrimping Behavior in Pressurized Woven Fabric. ASME 2004 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Anaheim, CA, 13-19 November 2004, 13-21.

[29]   Cavallaro, P.V., Sadegh, A.M. and Quigley, C.J. (2007) Decrimping Behavior of Uncoated Plain-Woven Fabrics Subjected to Combined Biaxial Tension and Shear Stresses. Textile Research Journal, 77, 403-416.

[30]   Kashani, M.H., Rashidi, A., Crawford, B. and Milani, A. (2016) Analysis of a Two-Way Tension-Shear Coupling in Woven Fabrics under Combined Loading Tests: Global to Local Transformation of Non-Orthogonal Normalized Forces and Displacements. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 88, 272-285.

[31]   Nosrat-Nezami, F., Gereke, T., Eberdt, C. and Cherif, C. (2014) Characterisation of the Shear-Tension Coupling of Carbon-Fibre Fabric under Controlled Membrane Tensions for Precise Simulative Predictions of Industrial Preforming Processes. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 67, 131-139.


[33]   Boisse, P., Hamila, N., Vidal-Sallé, E. and Dumont, F. (2011) Simulation of Wrinkling during Textile Composite Reinforcement Forming. Influence of Tensile, In-Plane Shear and Bending Stiffnesses. Composites Science and Technology, 71, 683-692.

[34]   Buet-Gautier, K. and Boisse, P. (2001) Experimental Analysis and Modeling of Biaxial Mechanical Behavior of Woven Composite Reinforcements. Experimental Mechanics, 41, 260-269.

[35]   Carvelli, V., Corazza, C. and Poggi, C. (2008) Mechanical Modelling of Monofilament Technical Textiles. Computational Materials Science, 42, 679-691.

[36]   Komeili, M. and Milani, A. (2013) An Elaboration on the Shear Characterization of Dry Woven Fabrics Using Trellising Tests. Polymer Composites, 34, 359-367.

[37]   Komeili, M. and Milani, A. (2016) On Effect of Shear-Tension Coupling in Forming Simulation of Woven Fabric Reinforcements. Composites Part B: Engineering, 99, 17-29.

[38]   Bilisik, K. (2011) Pull-Out Properties of Polyester Woven Fabrics: Effects of Softening Agent and Inter-Lacement on Single and Multiple Yarn Pull-Out Forces and Analysis by Statistical Model. Fibers and Polymers, 12, 1106-1118.

[39]   Isik, B. and Ekici, E. (2010) Experimental Investigations of Damage Analysis in Drilling of Woven Glass Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Composites. The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 49, 861-869.

[40]   Montgomery DC. (1991) Design and Analysis of Experiments.

[41]   Cavallaro, P. (2016) Effects of Weave Styles and Crimp Gradients in Woven Kevlar/Epoxy Composites. Experimental Mechanics, 56, 617-635.

[42]   Rashidi, A. and Milani, A. (2018) Passive Control of Wrinkles in Woven Fabric Preforms Using a Geometrical Modification of Blank Holders. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 105, 300-309.

[43]   Rashidi, A. and Milani, A.A. (2018) Multi-Step Biaxial Bias Extension Test for Wrinkling/De-Wrinkling Characterization of Woven Fabrics: Towards Optimum Forming Design Guidelines. Materials and Design, 146, 273-285.

[44]   Montazerian, H., Rashidi, A., Hoorfar, M. and Milani, A.S. (2019) A Frameless Picture Frame Test with Embedded Sensor: Mitigation of Imperfections in Shear Characterization of Woven Fabrics. Composite Structures, 211, 112-124.

[45]   Rashidi, A. and Milani, A. (2016) Characterization of Wrinkling and De-Wrinkling Behaviour of Woven Fabrics Using a Multi-Step Biaxial Bias Extension Test. ECCM17-17th European Conference on Composite Materials, Munich, Germany, 26-30 June 2016, 26-30.

[46]   Kashani, M.H., Hosseini, A., Sassani, F., Ko, F.K. and Milani, A.S. (2018) The Role of Intra-Yarn Shear in Integrated Multi-Scale Deformation Analyses of Woven Fabrics: A Critical Review. Critical Reviews in Solid State and Materials Sciences, 43, 213-232.

[47]   Schultz, B.B. (1985) Levene’s Test for Relative Variation. Systematic Zoology, 34, 449-456.