JEP  Vol.10 No.4 , April 2019
Risk Assessment of Trace Metals in Soils in the Vicinity of NPA Expressway Open Dump in Warri Metropolis, Delta State, Nigeria
Abstract: Heavy metals are non-biodegradable. They accumulate in the environment and subsequently contaminate the food chain. It is therefore essential to monitor heavy metals content in the soil, so as to prevent too much accumulation in human beings and animals through food chain. Test soil samples were collected from Nigeria Ports Authority (NPA) Expressway open dump, and background (control) soil samples were also collected at about 2 km from the open dump and spatial test samples were also collected. The physicochemical properties of the soil were determined. Tessier’s sequential extraction protocols were used to assess the geochemical forms of Cr, Pb, Zn, and Mn in the soil of the open dump. The concentrations of the heavy metals in the extracts were determined in a pre-calibrated atomic absorption spectrophotometer and they are above the background sample values. The metal assessment index (Igeo) evaluated, indicated that the soil in the vicinity of the open dump was highly polluted. The results obtained showed the mobile metal pools which are available to plants roots.
Cite this paper: Ataikiru, H. and Okieimen, F. (2019) Risk Assessment of Trace Metals in Soils in the Vicinity of NPA Expressway Open Dump in Warri Metropolis, Delta State, Nigeria. Journal of Environmental Protection, 10, 562-576. doi: 10.4236/jep.2019.104032.

[1]   Kalagbor, I.A., Okarahia, F.P., John, O.A. and Okiri, M.A. (2017) Evaluation of Heavy Metals in Some Food Items from Three Markets on the Eleme-Ogoni Highway, Rivers State, Nigeria. Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria, 42, 12-17.

[2]   Abdullahi, Z.B., Gimba, C.E., Omenesa, H. and Lawal, M.A. (2017) Investigation of Some Heavy Metals in Soil and Edible Parts of Spinach Farmlands around Kwari Pond, Kwangila Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria. Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria, 42, 98-105.

[3]   Eze, T.C. and Amaeze, N.H. (2016) Microbiological and Heavy Metal Characterization of Soil from an Open Hospital Wastes Dumpsite in Enugu, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Environmental Sciences, 18, 587-595.

[4]   Liu, Q., Liu, Y. and Zhang, M. (2012) Mercury and Cadmium Contamination in Traffic Soil of Beijing, China. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 88, 154-157.

[5]   Zhang, X.Y., Liu, F.F., Wong Mike, I.F., Feng, X.L. and Wang, K. (2009) Identification of Soil Heavy Metal Sources from Anthropogenic Activities and Pollution Assessment of Fuyang County, China. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 154, 439-441.

[6]   Duong, T.T. and Lee, B. (2011) Determining Contamination Level of Heavy Metals in Road Dust from Busy Traffic Areas with Different Characteristics. Journal of Environmental Management, 92, 554-562.

[7]   Qiao, M., Cai, C., Huang, Y., Liu, Y., Lin, A. and Zheng, Y. (2011) Characterisation of Soil Heavy Metal Contamination and Potential Health Risk in Metropolitan Region of Northern China. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 172, 353-365.

[8]   Massas, I., Kalivas, D., Ehaliotis, C. and Gasparatas, D. (2013) Total and Available Heavy Metal Concentrations in Soils of the Thriassio Plain (Greece) and Assessment of Soil Pollution Indexes. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 185, 6751-6766.

[9]   Sagi, Y. and Yigit, S.A. (2012) Heavy Metals in Yenicaega Lake and Its Potential Sources: Soil, Water, Sediment and Plankton. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 184, 1379-1389.

[10]   Ali, H., Ezzat, K. and Muhammed, A.S. (2013) Phytoremediation of Heavy Metals-Concepts and Applications. Chemosphere, 91, 869-881.

[11]   Muller, G. (2001) Schwermetalle in den sedimenten des Rheins-Vera ènderungen seit. Umschau, 79, 778-783.

[12]   Singh, A.K., Hasnain, S.I. and Benerjee, D.K. (2003) Grain Size and Geochemical Portioning of Heavy Metals in Sediments of the Damodar River. A Tributary of the Lower Ganga, India. Environmental Geology, 39, 90-98.

[13]   Tessier, A., Campbell, P.G.C. and Bisson, M. (1979) Sequential Extraction Procedure for the Speciation of Particulate Trace Metals. Analytical Chemistry, 51, 844-851.

[14]   Cezary, K. and Bal, R.S. (2001) Fractionation and Mobility of Copper, Lead and Zinc in the Vicinity of a Copper Smelter. Journal of Environmental Quality, 30, 485-492.

[15]   National Population Census (2006).

[16]   Folson, B.L., Lee, C.R. and Bates, D.J. (1981) Influence of Disposal Environment on Availability and Plant Uptake of Heavy Metals in Dredged Materials. Tech. Re-P EL-81-12 US Army Washington DC.

[17]   Nelson, D.W. and Sommers, L.E. (1982) Total Carbon, Organic Carbon and Organic Matter. Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2, 2nd Edition, ASA, SSSA, Madison, 539-579.

[18]   Asagba, E.U., Okieimen, F.E. and Osakpor, J. (2007) Screening and Speciation of Heavy Metals Contaminated Soil from an Automobile Spare Parts Market. Chemical Speciation and Bioavailability, 19, 9-15.

[19]   Jackson, M.L. (1960) Soil Chemical Analysis. Prentice-Hall, New York.

[20]   Bouyoucos, G.J. (1960) Improved Hydrometer Method for Making Particle Size Analysis of Soils. Agronomy Journal, 54, 464-465.

[21]   Day, P.R. (1953) Experimental Confirmation of Hydrometer Theory. Soil Science, 75, 181-186.

[22]   Spark, D.L. (2001) Elucidating the Fundamental Chemistry of Soils; Past and Recent Achievements and Future Frontiers. Goederma, 100, 303-319.

[23]   Department of Petroleum Resources (1991) Lagos Environmental Guidelines and Standards for the Petroleum Industry in Nigeria (EGASPIN). 278-281.

[24]   Ahmed, A.M.M., Salah, M.A.H. and Ahmed, F.E.A. (2011) Assessment of the Heavy Metals around Two Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Dumpsites, Egypt. ECO Services International.

[25]   Nweke, O.M. and Ukpai, S.N. (2016) Use of Enrichment, Ecological Risk and Contamination Factors with Geoaccumulation Indexes to Evaluate Heavy Metal Contents in the Soils around Ameka Mining Area, South of Abaka Liki Nigeria.

[26]   Rahman, F.R., Allan, D.L., Rosen, C.J. and Sadowsky, M.J. (2004) Arsenic Availability from Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA)-Treated Wood. Journal of Environmental Quality, 33, 173-180.

[27]   Yusuf, A. (2007) Sequential Extraction of Pb, Cu, Cd & Zn in Soils near Ojota Waste Site. Journal of Agronomy, 6, 331-337.

[28]   Barona, A., Aranguiz, I. and Elias, A. (1999) Zinc and Copper Distribution in Soils and Their Removal by Chelating Extraction. Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology, 74, 700-708.<700::AID-JCTB103>3.0.CO;2-F

[29]   Birch, G., Saika, M. and Owen, C. (2001) The Source of Anthropogenic Heavy Metals in Fluvial Sediments of a Rural Catchment, Cox River, Australia. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, 126, 13-25.

[30]   Ahumada, I., Mendouza, J., Navarrete, E. and Ascar, L. (1999) Sequential Extraction of Heavy Metals in Soils Irrigated with Wastewater. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 30, 1507-1519.

[31]   Pizarro, J., Rubio, A.M. and Castillo, X. (2003) Study of Chemical Speciation in Sediments: An Approach to Vertical Metals Distribution in Rapel Reservoir (Chile). Journal of the Chilean Chemical Society, 48, 45-50.