AJMB  Vol.9 No.2 , April 2019
Molecular Evaluation of Garcinia kola Heckel Accessions Using RAPD Markers
Abstract: The genetic relationships among twenty-five accessions of Garcinia kola using six Random Amplified Polymorphic (RAPD) primers were evaluated in this study. The highest volume of total genomic DNA (2218/μl) was recorded in ON4 from Ikare, while the highest DNA concentration of 1.93 gl was found in OS3 from Ilesa. The highest Polymorphic Information Content (PIC) and gene diversity of 93.77% and 0.94 respectively were revealed by primer OPO2 compared to other primers. The dendogram generated from Unweighted Pair Group with Mean Average (UPGMA) clustering delineated two groups, A and B, consisting of 21 and 4 accessions respectively. This study clearly showed the level of molecular diversity in the accessions and the information provided could be utilized for genetic improvement and conservation of Garcinia kola.
Cite this paper: Olawuyi, O. and Azeez, A. (2019) Molecular Evaluation of Garcinia kola Heckel Accessions Using RAPD Markers. American Journal of Molecular Biology, 9, 41-51. doi: 10.4236/ajmb.2019.92004.

[1]   Falconer, J. (1992) Non-Timber Forest Products in Southern Ghana. ODA Forestry Series.

[2]   Peprah, T., Kyereh, B., Owusu, K. and Adu-Bredu, S. (2009) Drough Tolerance of Garcinia kola and Garciniaafzelia at the Seedling Stage. Ghana Journal of Forestry, 25, 13-27.

[3]   Koffi, E., N’guessan, A., Kouame, C., Kouassi, M. and Kahia, J. (2015) Possibility of Using the Intermediate Mature Stage of Garcinia kola Heckel Seeds to Shorten the Germination Time. African Journal of Agriculture Research, 10, 4762-4769.

[4]   Ouédraogo, A. and Boffa, J. (1999) Versuneapprocherégionale des resources génétiquesforestières en Afrique sub-saharienne. Actesdupremier atelier régional de formation surlaconservation et l’utilisation durable des resources génétiquesforestières en Afrique de l’Ouest, AfriqueCentrale et Madagascar, 16-27 Mars 1998, Centre National de Semences Forestières CNSF, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. IPGRI, Rome, 299.

[5]   Yakubu, F., Bolanle-Ojo, O., Ogunade, O. and Yahaya, D. (2014) Effects of Water Oaking and Light on the Dormancy of Garcinia kola, Heckel Seeds. European Journal f Agriculture and Forestry Research, 2, 17-26.

[6]   Adefule-Ositelu, A., Adefule, A., Oosa, B. and Onyenefa, P. (2004) Antifungal Activity of Garcinia kola Nut Extract as an Ocular Bacterial Isolates in Lagos. Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine, 14, 112-114.

[7]   Akintowa, A. and Essien, A. (1990) Protective Effects of Garcinia kola Seed Extract against Paracetamol-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 9, 207-211.

[8]   Olatunde, F., Hansen, M., Rain-Haren, P. and Dragsted, L. (2004) Commonly Consumed and Naturally Occurring Dietary Substances affect Bio Makers of Oxidative Stress and DNA damage in Healthy Rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 42, 1315-322.

[9]   Braide, V. (1991) Pharmacological Effect of Chronic Ingestion of Garcinia kola Seeds n Rats. Phytotherapy Research, 4, 39-41.

[10]   Odeigah, P., Taiwo, I., Akomolafe, E. and Durojaiye, O. (1999) Hypoglycemic Action of Medicinal Plants with Tolbutamide in the Albino Rats. Diabetes Int., 9, 71-73.

[11]   Stubber, C. (1994) Heterosis in Plant Breeding. Plant Breeding Reviews, 12, 227-251.

[12]   Govindaraj, M., Vetriventhan, M. and Srinivasan, M. (2015) Importance of Genetic Diversity Assessment in Crop Plants and Its Recent Advances: An Overview of Its Analytical Perspectives. Genetics Research International, 2015, Article ID: 431487.

[13]   Muhammad, I. and Muhammad, I. (2014) Molecular Markers in Plants for Analysis of Genetic Diversity: A Review. European Academic Research, 2, 1513-1540.

[14]   Kumar, L. (1999) DNA Markers in Plant Improvement: An Overview. Biotechnology Advances, 17, 143-182.

[15]   Bered, F., Terra, T., Spellmeier, M. and Neto, J. (2005) Genetic Variation among and within Sweet Corn Populations Detected by RAPD and SSR Markers. Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology, 5, 418-425.

[16]   Elizangela, A., Luciano, V., Humberto, H. and Claudia, T. (2000) Molecular Characterization and Genetic Diversity of Potato Cultivars Using SSR and RAPD Markers. Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology, 10, 204-210.

[17]   Bamigbegbin, B.J., Olawuyi, O.J. and Jonathan, S.G. (2016) Molecular Variability of Celosia argentea Using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) Marker. Molecular Plant Breeding, 7, 1-6.

[18]   Olawuyi, O.J. and Onuoha, S.O. (2017) Genetic Assessment of Amaranthus Linn. Genotypes in Treatment Combinations of Glomus clarum and Leucaena leucocephala Lam. Using Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) Marker. Molecular Plant Breeding, 8, 85-99.

[19]   Utpala, P., Nandakishore, O., Nirmalbabu, K., Kumar, S. and Parthasarathy, V. (2013) Comparative Effectiveness of Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat and Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA Markers to Study Genetic Diversity of Indian Garcinia. Indian Institute of Spices Research, 12, 6443-6451.

[20]   Demeke, T., Lynch, D., Kawchuck, L., Kozub, G. and Armstrong, J. (1996) Diversity of Potato Determined by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Analysis. Plant Cell Reports, 15, 662-667.

[21]   Tharachand, C., Selvaraj, C. and Abraham, Z. (2015) Molecular Insights into the Genetic Diversity of Garcinia cambogia Ermplasm Accessions. Biological and Applied Sciences, 58.

[22]   Doyle, J.J. and Doyle, J.L. (1987) A Rapid DNA Isolation Procedure for Small Quantities of Fresh Leaf Tissue. Phytochemical Bulletin, 19, 11-15.

[23]   Borges, A., Rosa, M., Recchia, G., de Queiroz-Silva, J., Bressan, E. and Veasey, E. (2009) TAB Methods for DNA Extraction of Sweet Potato for Microsatellite Analysis. Scientia Agricola, 66, 529-534.

[24]   Devi, B., Mohan, C., Sreekanth, D. and Devi, P. (2015) Genetic Diversity Studies in Twelve Accessions of Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. BR. by RAPD Analysis. International Journal of Pure and Applied Bioscience, 3, 150-157.

[25]   Seyit, A., Erdogan, E. and Emine, P. (2010) Comparison of Effectiveness of ISSR and RAPD Markers in Genetic Characterization of Seized Marijuana, Cannabis sativa L. in Turkey. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 5, 2925-2933.

[26]   Ojuederie, O., Igwe, D., Okuofu, S. and Faloye, B. (2013) Assessment of Genetic Diversity in Some Moringaoleifera Lam. Landraces from Western Nigeria Using RAPD Markers. The African Journal of Plant Science and Biotechnology, 7, 15-20.

[27]   Mansyah, E., Edison, H. and Noflindawati (2015) Preliminary Studies on Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Wild Garcinia in Sijunjung, West Sumatra. Indian Journal of Plant Genetic Resources, 28, 31-38.

[28]   Sobir, R.P., Santosa, E., Sinaga, S. and Mansyah, E. (2011) Genetic Variability in Apomictic Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) and Its Close Relatives (Garcinia spp.) Based on ISSR Markers. Biodiversitas, 12, 59-63.

[29]   Sinaga, S., Sobir, R.P., Aswidinnoor, H. and Duryadi, D. (2010) Genetic Diversity and the Relationship between the Indonesian Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) and the Related Species Using Isozyme Markers. Journal Nature Indonesia, 13, 53-58.

[30]   Ramage, C.M., Sando, L., Peace, C.P., Carroll, B.J. and Drew, R.A. (2004) Genetic Diversity Revealed in the Apomictic Fruit Species Garcinia mangostana L. (Mangosteen). Euphytica, 136, 1-10.

[31]   Chinawat, Y. and Subhadrabhanu, S. (2004) Phylogenetic Relationship of Mangosteen and Several Wild Relatives Revealed by ITS Sequence Data. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 129, 368-373.

[32]   Onuoha, S.O. and Olawuyi, O.J. (2017) Phenotypic Evaluation of Heritability, Agro-Morphological and Yield Characters of Sixteen Amaranthus Linn. Genotypes. American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences, 12, 113-122.