Back
 AS  Vol.10 No.3 , March 2019
Improvement of the Quality of Brazilian Conilon through Wet Processing: A Sensorial Perspective
Abstract: Conilon coffee represents almost 20% of all coffee production in the Brazilian territory; however, it is inexpressive in relation to the sensory quality when compared to Arabica coffee. It is noteworthy that the coffee from the species Coffea canephora PIERRE has a denser sensorial profile, is less sweet, less acidic and with strong pronunciation of the body at the time of tasting. This study has unprecedentedly applied the use of starter cultures (yeast) to optimize and modify the metabolic pathways and consequently the sensorial quality perceived by Q-graders. The experiments were conducted in a randomized block design with five replicates, in the 3 × 4 factorial scheme, with three fermentation times—24, 48 and 72 hours and four wet processing tests—Washed, Yeast fermentation, Fully washed without yeast and Fully washed with yeast. The sensorial results indicate a new perspective for the application of wet processing with starter cultures for Conilon coffee. They indicate gains in sensory scale, opening a new phase of studies on spontaneous and induced fermentation for Conilon coffee in Brazil and worldwide.
Cite this paper: Pereira, L. , Moreli, A. , Moreira, T. , Caten, C. , Marcate, J. , Debona, D. and Guarçoni, R. (2019) Improvement of the Quality of Brazilian Conilon through Wet Processing: A Sensorial Perspective. Agricultural Sciences, 10, 395-411. doi: 10.4236/as.2019.103032.
References

[1]   Companhia Nacional de Abastecimento (CONAB) (2018) Acompanhamento da safra brasileira de café: Primeiro levantamento. 5-SAFRA 2018, 1-73.

[2]   United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) (2018) Coffee: World Markets and Trade. Foreign Agricultural.
https://apps.fas.usda.gov/psdonline/circulars/coffee.pdf

[3]   Ribeiro, B.B., et al. (2014) Avaliação química e sensorial de blends de Coffea canephora Pierre E Coffea arabica L. Coffee Science, 9, 178-186.

[4]   Di Donfrancesco, B.D., Guzman, N.G. and Chambers, E. (2014) Comparison of Results from Cupping and Descriptive Sensory Analysis of Colombian Brewed Coffee. Journal of Sensory Studies, 29, 301-311.
https://doi.org/10.1111/joss.12104

[5]   Feria-Morales, A.M. (2002) Examining the Case of Green Coffee to Illustrate the Limitations of Grading Systems/Expert Tasters in Sensory Evaluation for Quality Control. Food Quality and Preference, 13, 355-367.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0950-3293(02)00028-9

[6]   Bhumiratana, N., Adhikari, K. and Chambers, E. (2011) Evolution of Sensory Aroma Attributes from Coffee Beans to Brewed Coffee. LWT—Food Science and Technology, 44, 2185-2192.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2011.07.001

[7]   Alvarado, R.A. and Linnemann, A.R. (2010) The Predictive Value of a Small Consumer Panel for Coffee-Cupper Judgment. British Food Journal, 112, 1023-1032.
https://doi.org/10.1108/00070701011074372

[8]   Gloess, A.N., et al. (2013) Comparison of Nine Common Coffee Extraction Methods: Instrumental and Sensory Analysis. European Food Research and Technology, 236, 607-627.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-013-1917-x

[9]   Alonso-Salces, R.M., et al. (2009) Botanical and Geographical Characterization of Green Coffee (Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora): Chemometric Evaluation of Phenolic and Methylxanthine Contents. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 57, 4224-4235.
https://doi.org/10.1021/jf8037117

[10]   Liu, P., et al. (2012) Sensory Characteristics and Antioxidant Activities of Maillard Reaction Products from Soy Protein Hydrolysates with Different Molecular Weight Distribution. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 5, 1775-1789.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11947-010-0440-3

[11]   Pereira, M.C., et al. (2010) Multivariate Analysis of Sensory Characteristics of Coffee Grains (Coffea arabica L.) in the Region of Upper Paranaíba. Acta Scientiarum. Agronomy, 32, 635-641.
https://doi.org/10.4025/actasciagron.v32i4.4283

[12]   Tfouni, S.A.V., et al. (2012) Effect of Roasting on Chlorogenic Acids, Caffeine and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Levels in Two Coffea Cultivars: Coffea arabica cv. Catuaí Amarelo IAC-62 and Coffea canephora cv. Apoatã IAC-2258. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 47, 406-415.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2011.02854.x

[13]   Wei, F., et al. (2010) Complex Mixture Analysis of Organic Compounds in Green Coffee Bean Extract by Two-Dimensional NMR Spectroscopy. Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry, 48, 857-865.
https://doi.org/10.1002/mrc.2678

[14]   Taveira, J.H., et al. (2014) Potential Markers of Coffee Genotypes Grown in Different Brazilian Regions: A Metabolomics Approach. Food Research International, 61, 75-82.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2014.02.048

[15]   Bertrand, E., et al. (2006) Comparison of Bean Biochemical Composition and Beverage Quality of Arabica Hybrids Involving Sudanese—Ethiopian Origins with Traditional Varieties at Various Elevations in Central America. Tree Physiology, 26, 1239-1248.
https://doi.org/10.1093/treephys/26.9.1239

[16]   Bosselmann, A.S., et al. (2009) The Influence of Shade Trees on Coffee Quality in Small Holder Coffee Agroforestry Systems in Southern Colombia. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 129, 253-260.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2008.09.004

[17]   Pereira, G.V.M., et al. (2014) Isolation, Selection and Evaluation of Yeasts for Use in Fermentation of Coffee Beans by the Wet Process. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 188, 60-66.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2014.07.008

[18]   Silva, C.F., Batista, L.R. and Schwan, R.F. (2008) Incidence and Distribution of Filamentous Fungi during Fermentation, Drying and Storage of Coffee (Coffea Arabica L.) Beans. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, 39, 521-526.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S1517-83822008000300022

[19]   Evangelista, S.R., et al. (2014) Improvement of Coffee Beverage Quality by Using Selected Yeasts Strains during the Fermentation in Dry Process. Food Research International, 61, 183-195.
https://doi.org/10.1111/joss.12104

[20]   Evangelista, S.R., et al. (2014) Inoculation of Starter Cultures in a Semi-Dry Coffee (Coffea arabica) Fermentation Process. Food Microbiology, 44, 87-95.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fm.2014.05.013

[21]   Masoud, W. and Jespersen, L. (2006) Pectin Degrading Enzymes in Yeasts Involved in Fermentation of Coffea arabica in East Africa. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 110, 291-296.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2006.04.030

[22]   Massawe, G.A. and Lifa, S.J. (2010) Yeasts and Lactic Acid Bacteria Coffee Fermentation Starter Cultures. International Journal of Postharvest Technology and Innovation, 2, 41-82.
https://doi.org/10.1504/IJPTI.2010.038187

[23]   Velmourougane, K. (2013) Impact of Natural Fermentation on Physicochemical, Microbiological and Cup Quality Characteristics of Arabica and Robusta Coffee. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 83, 233-239.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s40011-012-0130-1

[24]   Lee, L.W., et al. (2015) Coffee Fermentation and Flavor—An Intricate and Delicate Relationship. Food Chemistry, 185, 182-191.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.03.124

[25]   Pereira, L.L. (2017) Novas abordagens para produção de cafés especiais a partir do processamento via-úmida. Ph.D. Dissertation, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul.

[26]   Pereira, L.L., et al. (2018) Influence of Solar Radiation and Wet Processing on the Final Quality of Arabica Coffee. Journal of Food Quality, 2018, Article ID: 6408571.
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/6408571

[27]   UCDA (2012) Uganda Coffee Development Authority.
https://ugandacoffee.go.ug/sites/default/files/Resource_center/UCDA%20Annual%20Report_2011-2012_0.pdf

[28]   Specialty Coffee Association of American (2015) Protocols. SCAA.
http://www.scaa.org/PDF/resources/cupping-protocols.pdf

[29]   SCA (Specialty Coffee Association of American) (2015) Protocols.
http://www.scaa.org/PDF/resources/cupping-protocols.pdf

[30]   Pereira, L.L., et al. (2018) Propositions on the Optimal Number of Q-Graders and R-Graders. Journal of Food Quality, 2018, Article ID: 3285452.
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/3285452

[31]   Pereira, L.L., et al. (2016) Tamanho ótimo do Número de Provadores de Café com Uso do Protocolo SCAA. Great Size Number of Coffee Tasters with the Use of SCA Protocol, 19, 20-21.

[32]   Gloess, A.N., et al. (2014) Evidence of Different Flavour Formation Dynamics by Roasting Coffee from Different Origins: On-Line Analysis with PTR-ToF-MS. MASPEC-15125. International Journal of Mass Spectrometry, 365-366, 324-337.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijms.2014.02.010

[33]   Joët, T., et al. (2010) Influence of Environmental Factors, Wet Processing and Their Interactions on the Biochemical Composition of Green Arabica Coffee Beans. Food Chemistry, 118, 693-701.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.05.048

[34]   Ashok, P.K. and Upadhyaya, K. (2012) Tannins Are Astringent. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 1, 45-50.

[35]   Mazzafera, P. (1999) Chemical Composition of Defective Coffee Beans. Food chemistry, 64, 547-554.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(98)00167-8

[36]   Franca, A.S., Mendonca, J.C.F. and Oliveira, S.D. (2005) Composition of Green and Roasted Coffees of Different Cup Qualities. LWT—Food Science and Technology, 38, 709-715.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2004.08.014

[37]   Ribeiro, L.R., et al. (2017) Controlled Fermentation of Semi-Dry Coffee (Coffea arabica) Using Starter Cultures: A Sensory Perspective. LWT—Food Science and Technology, 82, 32-38.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2017.04.008

[38]   Avelino, J., et al. (2005) Effects of Slope Exposure, Altitude and Yield on Coffee Quality in Two Altitude Terroirs of Costa Rica, Orosi and Santa María de Dota. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 85, 1869-1876.
https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2188

[39]   Lin, C.C. (2010) Approach of Improving Coffee Industry in Taiwan-Promote Quality of Coffee Bean by Fermentation. The Journal of International Management Studies, 5, 154-159.

[40]   Lee, L.W., et al. (2017) Modulation of the Volatile and Non-Volatile Profiles of Coffee Fermented with Yarrowia lipolytica: II. Roasted Coffee Liang. LWT—Food Science and Technology, 80, 32-42.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2017.01.070

[41]   Malta, M.R., et al. (2013) Alterações na qualidade do café submetido a diferentes formas de processamento e secagem. Reveng. Engenharia na agricultura, 21, 431-440.
https://doi.org/10.13083/reveng.v21i5.450

[42]   Damatta, F.M. (2004). Exploring Drought Tolerance in Coffee: A Physiological Approach with Some Insights for Plant Breeding. Brazilian Journal Plant Physiology, 16, 1-6.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S1677-04202004000100001

[43]   Puerta, G.I. (2000). Influencia de los granos de café cosechados verdes en la calidad física y organoléptica de la bebida. Cenicafé, 51, 136-150.

[44]   De Bruyn, F., Zhang, S.J., Pothakos, V., et al. (2017) Exploring the Impacts of Postharvest Processing on the Microbiota and Metabolite Profiles during Green Coffee Bean Production. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 83, 1-40.
https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.02398-16

 
 
Top