JWARP  Vol.11 No.3 , March 2019
Swedish Experience and Excellence in Wastewater Treatment Demonstrated Especially in Phosphorus Removal
Abstract: Water quality protection in Sweden has a more than 80-year history. The needed knowledge has by large been imported. Now, to some extent the development of phosphorus removal technology may be Swedish contribution to advanced knowledge. This paper presents the development in Sweden, mainly a close to 50-year period. Starting in the late 1960s, a standard of <0.5 mg P/l was the normally raised effluent criteria, regardless of the magnitude of the discharge flow. The successive sharpening of the discharge levels has today resulted in a level of 0.2 to 0.3 mg P/l typically. As a matter of fact, even levels of 0.1 to 0.15 mg P/l have been discussed. The period should a large extent demonstrated both improved technologies and a far better efficiency with respect to the use of chemicals and energy. Some important points in this development may be the understanding of the Oxygen Consumption Potential, as well as the identified needs for an improved nitrogen removal. Lately the problems of complex pollution agents and predominantly the remains of pharmaceutical agents have been identified. To illustrate the development during the 50-year period, two examples are presented from the Swedish context. The main conclusion in this paper is that the Swedish history on phosphorus removal illustrates how empirical science in practice sometimes works, including a never-ending need for an open mind and a readiness to take revised and improved knowledge on board.
Cite this paper: Morling, S. (2019) Swedish Experience and Excellence in Wastewater Treatment Demonstrated Especially in Phosphorus Removal. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 11, 333-347. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2019.113019.

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