In the development of recent years, there have been many reconstruction modes of villages in cities. Although the government is the dominant position, the emergence of many new subjects also promotes the reconstruction of old cities. For another example, on the basis of the villagers’ self-transformation, the semi-market-oriented community-based transformation model is introduced into enterprises through the market mechanism. Another example is the market-oriented real estate development model led by developers (Yuan, 2009) . However, many problems have been exposed in this model. Developers may blindly pursue interests, or the public may only pursue their own interests, regardless of urban development. Therefore, in the process of old city reconstruction, the government as the leading role is more suitable for China’s national conditions. However, as China has been implementing the old city reconstruction model under the dual structure system for a long time, the traditional system has a great constraint on the village reconstruction model. Only by breaking the dual structure system of urban and rural areas, can we fundamentally guarantee the smooth progress of village reconstruction (Yu, 2015) .
As most of China’s urbanization is passive urbanization, which is a top-down urbanization led by the government, the government needs to foresee the future, introduce the needs and opinions of different stakeholders in the face of the complex urban management system, and put forward a predictable strategic conception and plan (Liu, 2007) . Government is operators and managers of the city, is the decision of the old city reconstruction and new city construction and related policy makers; its decision-making decision depends on the government’s cost-benefit; and changing the government is keen to establish a new method from the city management to urban governance (An, 2011) . If a mode of “community of interests” is built to make the government, developers and residents of the original residence form a community of Shared interests and risks through contractual arrangements, then the interests and risks of the three parties are bound to a certain extent, so as to reach a balanced state of interests (Wang, 2010) . However, who makes such a contract, how to implement it, and the proportion of interests and risks taken by each party should be further improved.
Since the “withdrawal of the city and establishment of districts” in Lin’an in August 2017, large-scale reconstruction of the old city has been carried out in the whole district. The reconstruction method does not take the urban commercial development as the core, but takes the urban center as the center, and rebuilds and expands around it. The reconstruction of the old city along the edge of the city brings some challenges to the city management. In many urban fringe areas, there are still organizations integrating collective economy and administration. The buildings are messy and dense, especially in Lin’an, where the phenomenon of “village in the city” appears. Due to the inertia of the dual system, this “village in the city” still implements the rural management system, so it is far from the requirements of modern cities in construction planning, land use, community management, property management and other aspects, and even there is a management vacuum.
2. Research Samples and Data Description
2.1. Selecting a Template
This study selected the villagers’ groups of Donghu village and Pingshan village in Lin’an district and the teachers’ groups of south campus for investigation, taking this as an example. Over the years, the contradiction between Donghu village and Pingshan village on the issue of “village to habitat” is relatively prominent, and the resulting conflict of interest has long aroused the high attention of the people’s government of Lin’an district. Now, the problem of compensation for land expropriation between the two villages after the “withdrawal of the city and the establishment of districts” in Lin’an has intensified the focus of the contradiction, so it is extremely urgent to solve the problem.
Secondly, as an important public activity area in Lin’an district, Zhejiang agriculture and forestry university not only occupies part of the whole Lin’an district in terms of geographical area, but also plays an irreplaceable role in the economic benefits brought by university activities. However, the problem of retired teachers’ housing resettlement and the government-arranged demolition of old houses also intensified the contradiction between the people’s government and the teacher group. As a group of intellectuals, the teacher group has its own ways and legal approaches, and the solution of the contradiction cannot be ignored.
Figure 1 shows the planning area of Pingshan village determined in Lin’an district.
2.2. Maintaining the Integrity of the Specifications
Due to the close geographical location of the two villages, and in the process of old city reconstruction over the years, the contradiction is more prominent. In the early years, as Pingshan village faced Zhejiang agriculture and forestry university, there were many merchants, which brought a lot of business opportunities and good income. As shown in Figure 1, a clear planned area has appeared in Pingshan village. And village of east lake appears more depressed, because be located in the east of agriculture and forestry university, do not have school gate direct, business opportunity is less. But now as a result of the construction of the intercity track, the residents of Donghu village have a new income. The basic information of the two villages is shown in Table 1.
By chart can clearly see that, although the two village population and geographic area difference is not large, but far on the rural collective economic
Table 1. Basic information of sample objects.
Note: This data comes from the statistical results of Zhejiang government affairs net in 2014.
Figure 1. Pingshan village planning area map. Note: Pictures from the Lin’an government network.
income, but the per capita net income of farmers ping village is higher than that of the east lake village, therefore found that ping, many residents of the village is not engaged in agricultural activities, with more than 2000 acres of land requisition in succession, farmers completely lost, but because of agriculture and forestry university, economy applicable room built around, block to enrage gradual warming, faced with good development opportunities and prospects. In order to solve the problems of farmers and rural areas, Pingshan village adjusted measures to local conditions, focused on the development of the second and third industries, and guided the villagers to change their living habits, leaving the soil for work and joining the market, creating more business opportunities. Therefore, the per capita net income was much higher than that of Donghu village, which was mainly developed by agriculture.
2.3. Data Description
On November 10, 2017, 24 families of teachers from Zhejiang A&F University jointly wrote a letter to the higher party committee, the government and the news media, accusing the government of Lin’an district in Hangzhou of illegally freezing real estate, including the south campus of Zhejiang A&F University, claiming to expropriate and remove the property. If do not cooperate, will be forced to remove.
These 24 sets of housing, is the school provides to the staff on the state-owned transfer land housing reform. With beautiful environment, high greening rate and complete supporting facilities in all aspects, we can enjoy high-quality resources in transportation, life, medical treatment, education, finance and other aspects in the main urban area. Of Lin’an, however, the district government office to teachers agree on compensation scheme under the premise of to 7500 yuan per square meter of low prices to impose the demolition of their homes, and published in 2017 annual urban village reconstruction plan and there is no plan for transforming region in the south campus, the following shown in Figure 2, there are some irregularities.
From Table 2, it can be seen that from May to June, 2017, the government of
Figure 2. Dongmen village reconstruction area (red area) announced by Lin’an district in 2017. Note: The blue area is the area where the housing reform of the south campus of Zhejiang A&F University is located.
Table 2. The course of game between district government and teachers.
Lin’an district engaged in a game of interest relationship with the teacher group through different units, but ultimately failed to solve the interest demands of teachers, which eventually led this group to write a joint letter to complain to the government.
3. Sample Elements and Model Building
3.1. Sample Elements and Feature Descriptions
The number of residents involved in this study is 2027 in total. In this questionnaire survey, residents of Donghu village and Pingshan village in Lin’an district were selected by simple random sampling. According to the following formula, the number of respondents was determined to be 250. Therefore, a total of 279 questionnaires were issued and 262 questionnaires were collected, of which 250 were valid. In addition, in the form of structured interview, after the interview questions are designed in advance, all the interviewees are asked questions in the prescribed way and order, and the results are recorded in a unified way. The interviewees involved the managers and residents of the village committees and collective economic organizations. The number of sample elements in the survey is determined according to Scheaffer’s formula:
In the above formula, is the number of sample elements, N is the research object, that is, the sum of the population of the two villages and the number of teacher groups investigated, is the sampling error, which is set as 0.06, thus the number of sample survey elements is 250. The investigation adopts the method of combining questionnaire and structured interview. The questionnaire mainly includes the contradictions between the two villages due to the old city reconstruction and the compensation after the reconstruction.
The basic information of the surveyed residents is shown in Table 3.
It can be seen from Table 3, that the proportion of people aged between 25 and 40 years old is 75.6%, and their education level is generally at the level of junior college and undergraduate, and their thinking and knowledge level are relatively
Table 3. Basic information of interviewees.
clear. Its occupation concentrates in the company staff and the individual does business, the income is relatively stable. It is also obvious that most people are more willing to conduct individual business, and there are obvious marketization tendencies and many business opportunities in this region.
According to the above survey data, it is found that there are the following phenomena and characteristics of the interest game in the old city reconstruction.
The survey data shows that although there are a large number of respondents aged between 25 and 40, there is no significant difference in their views on this issue. Most adults agree with the existence of interest game, and believe that in the process of social development, the old city reconstruction also brings some new problems of interest dispute.
However, people aged 60 and above have more obvious opinions on old city reconstruction. They think that the old city reconstruction has changed their original way of life and habits, which makes them hard to accept psychologically and brings some troubles to their spiritual life. In addition, living in the city, they may face the problem of being separated from their children, which is unacceptable to many old people.
This is especially true for the teachers in the south campus of Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University. Among the 24 households, there are 9 households over 80 years old. They cannot accept the frequent relocation of their living places, which brings great troubles to their lives.
3.2. Interest Game Model
The interest game types were set as satisfied, relatively satisfied, dissatisfied and very dissatisfied. The partial correlation Kendall test in the correlation analysis was applied to test the possible interest game types after the “village resettlement”, and the correlation was predicted. As shown in the following table, the masses’ values of housing resettlement, future land use and cultural relic protection far exceeded the significance hypothesis value α = 0.05, indicating that there was no significant difference among the three groups. The P value test of compensation amount and population distribution ratio is less than, indicating that there are significant differences between the two groups. Therefore, it can be considered that the factors influencing the interest game type of “village resettlement” are compensation amount and population distribution ratio (Table 4).
Table 4. Kendall test statistic.
According to the correlation test, correlation analysis is mainly to determine whether there is a correlation between two or more variables, and analyze the form and degree of the correlation between variables. After determining that the influence type of game is compensation amount and population proportion distribution, the regression equation model is established to measure the regularity of the quantity change among the phenomena with correlation.
According to the following formula, the correlation coefficient r between compensation amount and population proportion distribution and game type is calculated.
Let y be the dependent variable and be the independent variable, and the relationship between independent variable and dependent variable is linear, then the multiple linear regression model is:
Suppose the game type of interest is , Based on the calculation of the above coefficient, the correlation coefficient between the compensation amount and can be obtained r = 0.937, Intercept B (constant) is −3.147, The correlation coefficient r = 0.881 between the proportion of population distribution and , and the intercept B (constant) is −4.729. The following two equations can be obtained to indicate the relationship between these two correlation factors and independent variables:
From these two equations, the correlation between dependent variable x and independent variable y can be roughly predicted, that is, for every unit point increase in compensation amount, the satisfaction of the masses of the interest game will increase by 0.937 unit points. Similarly, for every unit point increase in the population distribution ratio, the satisfaction of the masses in the interest game will increase by 0.881 unit points.
According to the above analysis and survey results, the author found that there are many factors affecting the game of these new subjects, focusing on government power and economic demands. The main content of the game between these two new subjects and the government is that the compensation content cannot reach the ideal in mind, and the way of compensation is unfair. The government has too much power, and directly issues the rectification order without asking and communicating, convening the villagers’ committee and soliciting the opinions of the teachers, which causes their dissatisfaction.
As for the demolition of the teachers’ community, the demolition office even took means of harassing, threatening and swindling them, forcing them to sign a contract, which seriously interfered with the normal work and life of the community. Lin’an municipal government also issued a “notice on strengthening the party members and public officials to assist the housing acquisition and relocation work”, the children of the families, relatives have party members and public officials, will be required to assist the housing acquisition and relocation work, did not sign the contract will be asked to help laid-off, so the use of power to pressure, causing mass discomfort.
According to the data obtained in the survey and the trend analysis of the data with the statistical software spss17.0, some problems found in the survey were obtained. However, only by finding the causes of the problems can we put forward targeted solutions and strategies. Therefore, the author conducted in-depth interviews with the villagers of Donghu village and Pingshan village to try to find out the problems.
4.1. To Ensure the Reasonable Compensation of Residents’ Interests in Demolition
When the dismantler compensates the dismantler, it shall submit to the city government and compensation for demolition and value-added tax that belong to the city government and the state as funds for urban reconstruction, infrastructure construction, construction of low-rent houses and subsidies for residents’ housing difficulties. Reduce the gap that demolition compensation should not have.
In addition, the Lin’an district government did not pay attention to the implementation of the detailed rules for house demolition compensation in the process of transferring from “city” to “district”. The demolition department needs to carefully study the implementation rules of demolition, actively communicate with the planning department, determine the planning time and the planning area, and carefully study the planning area map. The government needs to compensate people reasonably according to the market price.
Regularly promulgate the detailed benchmark and revision data of building replacement price and land location price to improve the objectivity, notarization and rationality of the evaluation of housing demolition compensation price. The purpose of the old city reconstruction is to enable people to live and work better, so that the work of urban management can be carried out better. Land acquisition is to get more usable land area. Therefore, when evaluating the land price, the government should make a reasonable evaluation and correction according to the measurement of the land red line provided by relevant departments.
4.2. Attach Importance to the Policy Participation of Demolition Residents
In recent years, due to the government’s leadership and promotion, residents’ awareness of policy participation has been greatly enhanced. On this basis, government departments should actively guide residents to participate in the formulation and modification of old city reconstruction policies in various forms. On the one hand, they should participate in the formulation of public policies on old city reconstruction. Community social organizations (such as villagers’ committees) should inform government departments of residents’ demands while meeting their needs. On the other hand, residents should participate in the governance of community public affairs, such as the maintenance and use of community public property, community public order, community neighborhood relations and other affairs.
On the one hand, it is necessary to cultivate residents’ collective consciousness and public spirit and stimulate their enthusiasm to participate in policy-making. The sense of community belonging of residents should be cultivated and the sense of responsibility for policy making should be established. On the other hand, we should focus on tapping the potential of individual residents and enhancing their confidence and ability to participate in policy-making.
4.3. Strengthen the Ideological Guidance to Residents of Demolition
People tend to have little sense of the big picture and care more about their own interests. However, the compensation for residents’ reconstruction of Pingshan village and Donghu village is different in terms of methods and contents, but each has its unique advantages and advantages. The residents of Pingshan village have been compensated for the commercial land, and the residents of Donghu village have been compensated according to the proportion of the population, and the amount of compensation is not small. Therefore, we should guide and inform them not to make a one-way comparison, but to take a long-term view.
Through education, residents can form a new understanding of themselves, others and community relations. Public spirit and community sense of belonging will be continuously enhanced, and their sense of participation will be continuously enhanced. Their ability and level of participation in policy formulation and modification will also be gradually improved.
The groups involved in this study may not be absolutely representative to some extent. In addition, there is certain irrationality in the research methods of this paper. For example, the sampling groups and the number of samples need to be more scientific and rigorous. In the future research, we need to improve the scientific and rigorous data.