The development of PE in schools greatly depends on the education level of PE teachers. The realization of the professionalization of PE teachers plays an important role in improving the educational and teaching ability of PE teachers. It is imperative to strengthen the re-education of PE teachers. At the same time, PE teachers are an important part in the teacher group. PE teachers play an irreplaceable role in promoting the physical and mental health of young students. In recent years, there have been many research results about PE teachers. In this work, we will discuss how to straighten out these achievements. We will also theoretically discuss how to construct PE teachers’ teaching ability, from aspects of current situation, connotation and framework. Therefore, this work definitely will play a certain role in the cultivation of PE teachers’ teaching ability.
Currently, there are many problems in the pre-employment, employment and post-employment of PE teachers in China. There are also many problems in the training of PE teachers’ education and teaching ability and the improvement of PE teachers’ teaching and learning ability after entry. For example, the number of schools with major in sport increases, the threshold for enrollment decreases, the number of enrollment is too much, the training strength of the unit is uneven, the employment rate of student whose major is PE is low, the post-service PE teachers are seriously consuming, lack of effective teaching research, the post-employment training is in the form, the curriculum is arbitrary, lacking of uniform guiding standards, lack of real and effective monitoring of quality of the entire PE teacher’s educational and teaching ability .
These problems exist to a large extent, which leads to the absence of the development of PE teachers in China and the vagueness of standards in PE teachers. Even if the qualification certificate for PE teachers is obtained, it is only a one-time final evaluation of the qualifications of the practitioners. After the examination, it has no contribution in the sustainable development of the PE teachers. Currently, the research on PE is mainly concentrated in colleges and universities. There is a lack of research on the teaching of PE in primary schools and infants. Due to funding and other reasons, there is a lack of effective research about teaching. “The teaching task proposed by the teacher and the actual level of the students completing these tasks” is the main contradiction in the current stage of PE teaching. To solve this contradiction fundamentally, we must find the reason from both teachers and students. The teacher, as the subject in the teaching process, must have a better understanding about the connotation of PE teachers’ teaching and learning ability. Reasonably construct the PE teacher’s education and teaching ability system will definitely meet current needs in PE. This is also the main topic in the work.
2. Concept of PE Teachers’ Teaching Ability
Domestic experts have carried out systematically research about construction on the connotation of teachers’ educational and teaching abilities in different directions, and their research results can be broadly divided into educational process view and psychological process view . As a branch of education, PE must have the common ability of teacher education, and must also highlight the personality of sports, that is, how to apply the sport knowledge and sport skills to sports practice reasonably. It is an effective concept of PE. Therefore, the connotation of PE teachers’ teaching ability is roughly divided into PE process view, sport psychological process view and effective PE view as schematically shown in Table 1.
2.1. PE Process View
The main direction of this subject is explained from the perspectives of the purpose of education, the intended goal, the content of teaching and the implementation
Table 1. The connotation of PE teachers’ teaching ability.
process, and educated methods. It pays attention to the subjective factors of various intellectual and skill types of PE teachers in the process of educational activities. At present, the important and urgent ability in PE includes the innovative ability of PE teachers, effective educational and scientific research ability, self-practice and demonstration ability, self-summary and reflection ability, the creation of the best classroom environment ability, good observation and thinking ability, knowledge update and the ability to use modern teaching techniques . The education and teaching ability of PE teachers can be regarded as the ability to educate people. It is the ability to promote the physical and mental health of students. The teachers need to love their job first and dedicate full time and effort on the career. The good morality of the teacher is also an interpretation of the students’ ideological and moral education ability.
2.2. Psychological Process View of PE
The main directions of psychological process view of PE are explained from the perspectives of classroom adaptability, exercise intensity adaptability, social adaptability and psychological endurance experienced by sports competition, as well as demand, motivation and personality shaping. It is needed to pay attention to the instructional conveyance of PE teachers in the process of physical activity. It is also need to pay attention on subjective factors such as psychological suggestion and psychological counseling.
2.3. Effective PE View
Currently, the research on effective PE is still on the basis of effective teaching. It does not highlight the particularity of sports. The understanding of its concepts is also confusing, and there are even great differences. The most representative point is that effective PE should be based on the interpretation of “effective, efficient, and benefit” . It is a modern teaching concept and it is a complete set of teaching strategies and evaluation criteria. In other words, in our PE class, students can learn the skills, master the corresponding sports skills, and be able to use them reasonably. The most important thing for students is to love this sport and be able to actively participate and develop good lifelong physical exercise habits. Those will make students really benefit.
3. Construction of Teaching Ability System for PE
The construction of teaching ability is built up based on the group education, general education, specific education and teaching ability . From the aspect of PE process view, it can be constructed by the group and general teaching ability system during the teaching process. It can be constructed by continuous exploration, reasoning and practice of teaching practice. From the aspect of psychological process view, it can be constructed by the verified and empirically summarized of teaching practice and teaching ability, and it can be constructed from the individualized and specific teaching ability system constructed from the key elements of ability and the practical problems, as schematically shown in Figure 1.
3.1. Construction of PE Process View
The concept of PE teaching is the basic literacy construction of a PE teacher. It should be the process of “reserve, update and special research”. First of all, PE teachers should be guaranteed by professional ethics. They should establish correct values of life and politics, have a sense of responsibility and a good quality of dedication. In professional development, they should establish a new concept of education as the premise, and improve and optimize the quality of career. They should infect each student with a noble personality and a high level of skill. In the education, PE teachers are characterized by a large number of students educated, a wide range of activities, and a large space for activities. The influence of PE teachers on students is extensive and profound, and the professional ethics of teachers has a direct impact on students.
As PE teachers, they should reserve a wide range of scientific and cultural knowledge, in-depth professional discipline knowledge, comprehensive and systematic education and scientific knowledge, and sports psychology knowledge. As a PE teacher, the knowledge structure should be diversified so that it can be applied systematically, comprehensively and flexibly. In the process of PE, students’ interest should be stimulated, students’ horizons should be broadened, students’ tastes should be cultivated, in order to meet the requirement of their pursuit of knowledge and physical exercise.
Figure 1. Construction of PE teachers’ teaching ability.
As PE teachers, they should renew the concept, and change accordingly with times, use modern information technology, extract the essence, falsify the truth, master and rationally use the modern teaching media, and effectively use the social software in order to communicate with the students for family management. They should also guide students’ development harmoniously in morality, intelligence, beauty and other aspects. They can share popular competitions and exciting videos to meet the needs of students to master professional knowledge and physical exercise methods.
As PE teachers, they should understand the new developments in the discipline of sports and the new changes in teaching methods, keep up with the pace of development of the country and schools, specialize in sports science and PE. In order to achieve the desired goals, continuous research, continuous experimentation and optimization are highly needed. The concept of PE process is actually based on the purpose of education. Through the subjective ability of teachers, the whole teaching process is controlled and the students’ strong cooperation is achieved. Through the continuous optimization of small goals, the overall goal of the teaching process can be finally achieved. In each of these processes, high requirements are needed for the PE teachers in order to have the ability of controlling the teaching process.
3.2. Construction of Psychological Process View
The construction of the concept of sports mind is a reasonable construction of “know, love, and desire” . In the classroom, the first is “know”, i.e., process of making students clear cognize. It includes feeling, perception, memory, thinking, imagination. Followed by “love”, the teachers need to pay attention to the various psychological experience processes that students produce, i.e., to generate emotions in the PE classroom, teachers, and sports learned. They are interested in experiencing and learning. Finally, “desire” requires students to overcome their difficulties in order to achieve their goals in the process of completing the task. Through the initial cognition and emotion to the final improvement, a long and complicated process is needed. Sports itself is a discipline that need the great will-power, so teachers should pay more attention to the cultivation of students will-power.
In the process of the PE class, the body consumes a lot of energy. In addition to the forced intervention, the PE teacher should have a certain psychological suggestive ability. It is also very important whether it can be interpreted as humorous and free, vivid and beautiful. The psychological education ability of PE teachers includes the awareness of psychological education in the education process, master the methods and means of psychological education, and obtain the psychological education skills. The teachers should recur language prompts in the course, repeat emphasis in repeated exercises, target explanations in teaching competitions, and encourage and adjust in the limits of exercise, grasp the students’ psychology, and practicing practical skills and intensity training through some humorous and precise psychological cues. The teachers can utilize existing venue equipment, prepare teach content and teachers’ advanced knowledge. Through psychological education skills, to achieve the conditions are related to each other, interact and restrict each other. And finally interpret the beauty of a wonderful sports classroom harmony and construct the psychological process of know, love, and desire’ which is the highest requirement of a PE teacher.
3.3. Construction of Effective PE View
The construction of an effective PE concept is to fully implement "effective, efficient and benefit" into each lesson, and optimize the classroom content according to various factors such as classroom content, venue equipment, and student ability. Fully mobilize the enthusiasm of students, dig their own strength, make them help each other, guide each other, supervise each other, and promote each other. PE teachers must ensure high-quality teaching in the choice of teaching content or teaching methods.
PE teachers must diversify their understanding of the curriculum, and the teaching methods should keep pace with the times, avoid the “top-down” traditional teaching method , and comprehensively apply various teaching methods according to the students’ conditions, and strive to implement effective PE. Finally, it is deserved to achieve teaching methods effectively, practice process effectively, and students will benefit in sports culture life.
PE is also a dynamic and complex process. The final result depends not only on the influence of various factors, but also depend on the relationship between various factors . Therefore, before the beginning of the class, the teacher should make an expectation for effective teaching. Under the guidance of PE process view, the psychological process view and the effective PE view, the teachers can finally find out the appropriate PE teaching methods through the interpretation of the PE classroom, do the appropriate evaluation and analysis of the students’ training after the complicated teaching process, finish the evaluation of students’ feedback. After continuous improvement, repetition and optimization, the teachers finally will find an apocopate teaching method according to conditions of local and students.
In the wave of education and teaching reform, PE has a common concern with other disciplines, that is to promote the professional development of teachers, improve the quality of teachers, and thus improve the quality of education which can be viewed as a breakthrough and key, and this will become the fundamental aim of PE reform. The education and teaching ability of PE teachers should be developed in the direction of specialization. This also plays an important role in improving the solving of many problems that arise in the teaching process of PE teachers. Through the PE process view, the psychological process view and the effective PE view, the PE teacher’s PE teaching ability system is reasonably constructed, and the contradiction between the teaching task proposed by the teacher and the actual level of the students completing these tasks is fundamentally solved. The professional development of PE teachers will promote the individual and group of PE teachers to reach a certain level. It requires long-term professional training, knowledge accumulation and careful research, and requires the teacher has firm beliefs, professional ethics and values. In order to ensure the quality of PE, we should pay attention to team building. Team building provides a good environment for teacher develop and finally will improve the professional status and social status of PE teachers.